anorexia


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Related to anorexia: bulimia, Eating disorders, Pro ana

anorexia

 [an″o-rek´se-ah]
lack or loss of appetite; appetite is psychological, dependent on memory and associations, as compared with hunger, which is physiologically aroused by the body's need for food. Anorexia can be brought about by subjectively unpleasant food, surroundings, or company, or emotional states such as anxiety, irritation, anger, or fear; it may also be a symptom of a physical disorder or emotional disturbance.
anorexia nervo´sa an eating disorder consisting of loss of appetite due to emotional states, such as anxiety, irritation, anger, and fear. In true anorexia nervosa there is no real loss of appetite, but rather a refusal to eat or an aberration in eating patterns; hence, the term anorexia is probably a misnomer. The clinical picture is usually that of a young woman who is obsessed with the idea of being thin and restricts her food intake to the point of danger; she may alternate fasting with periods of bingeing (bulimia). She often may be described as “a model child” with perfectionistic tendencies. A personal crisis often triggers the disorder.

The syndrome was first described more than 300 years ago and was once thought to be exceedingly rare. However, in recent years its incidence has been rapidly increasing throughout the world in developed countries as diverse as Russia, Japan, Australia, and the United States. The condition occurs mainly in girls after the age of puberty, and the prevalence may be as high as one in a hundred.
Cause. The cause of anorexia nervosa is unknown, but it is thought to be a complex of psychological, social, and biological factors. There are numerous theories, such as that the victim is attempting to control some aspects of life in an environment where it is difficult to exert control; that it is an attempt to manipulate others and gain attention; and social pressures, conflicting roles, and family disorders that serve as stimuli. Other theorists hypothesize that the disorder is a defense against sexual maturation, related to a fear of sexual intimacy. Society's obsession with physical appearance is also thought by some to play a role. Researchers are studying whether there could be a genetic component, as well as whether malfunction of the hypothalamus might play a role.
Symptoms. Criteria for diagnosis of anorexia nervosa identified by the American Psychiatric Association are as follows: (1) intense fear of becoming obese that does not diminish as weight loss progresses; (2) disturbance of body image, such as claiming to feel fat even when emaciated; (3) refusal to maintain body weight over a minimal normal weight for age and height; (4) no known physical illness that would account for the weight loss; and (5) amenorrhea in postmenarchal females. It is often accompanied by self-induced vomiting or use of laxatives and/or diuretics (see also bulimia nervosa) and extensive exercise. Accompanying physical signs in addition to profound weight loss include hypotension, bradycardia, edema, lanugo, metabolic changes, and endocrine disturbances.
Treatment. The treatment of anorexia nervosa is difficult and lengthy. The primary goals are restitution of normal nutrition and resolution of underlying psychological problems. Modes of therapy that can be used include behavior therapy, behavioral contracts, psychoanalysis, group therapy, insight-oriented therapy, and family therapy.

Nutritional counseling, social services and support, health education, and health care are all components in the physical and psychological recovery from an eating disorder. The physical sequelae, as well as the social and cultural aspects, require a multidisciplinary approach individualized to the unique needs of the victim and family. Inpatient treatment, either partial or complete, is required when the individual's problems warrant intensive services or if outpatient treatment is not successful. Some hospitals have special units for patients with eating disorders, providing an environment for treatment that emphasizes the simultaneous treatment of physiologic and psychological problems by professionals trained in the management of these patients. The American Psychological Association has identified numerous areas for research related to eating disorders.

Information and support for professionals as well as persons affected by the disorder can be obtained from the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders by writing to them at P.O. Box 7, Highland Park IL 60035 or calling their hotline at 1-847-831-3438.

an·o·rex·i·a

(an'ō-rek'sē-ă), Avoid substituting the simple word anorexia for anorexia nervosa.
Diminished appetite; aversion to food.
[G. fr. an- priv. + orexis, appetite]

anorexia

(ăn′ə-rĕk′sē-ə)
n.
1. Loss of appetite, especially as a result of disease.
2. Anorexia nervosa.

an·o·rex·i·a

(an'ŏ-rek'sē-ă)
Diminished appetite; aversion to food.
[G. fr. an- priv. + orexis, appetite]

anorexia

Loss of appetite, especially as a result of disease. From the Greek an , not and orexis , appetite.

Anorexia

Eating disorder associated with extreme fluctuations and loss in body weight.

an·o·rex·i·a

(an'ŏ-rek'sē-ă) Avoid substituting the simple word anorexia for anorexia nervosa.
Diminished appetite; aversion to food.
[G. fr. an- priv. + orexis, appetite]
References in periodicals archive ?
Anorexia is a serious and potentially life-threatening illness, and symptoms include a dangerously low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight, and a distorted body image.
To the authors' knowledge, there are very few reported studies (none from Pakistan) in the literature, describing a case of a male patient with schizophrenia and Anorexia Nervosa.3-5 In order to evaluate the case presented, few points related to validity of both diagnoses need to be highlighted.
According to Frank, anorexia nervosa behavior could alter the brain circuits and impact its taste-reward processing mechanisms.
Anorexia is an eating disorder characterised by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight.
One does not have to read past the book's first page to find such reductionist conclusions: "Anorexia is a practice, not a culture; an activity, not a symbol; an accident, not a statement" (p.
Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge-eating disorder tend to be more common in women than men.
Bakewell said anorexia was "called hunger when we were young", adding: "You sat and ate until your plate was clean."
CONCLUSION: Anorexia Nervosa is a rare eating disorder in Schizophrenia, especially in male population.
Due to anorexia, the girl does not go to school any more staying home for independent studies.
Keywords: adolescent men, masculinity, anorexia nervosa, construction of subjectivity
An increasing number of teens were hospitalized for restrictive eating despite not meeting the clinical definition for anorexia nervosa, according to a recent study.