annotation


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annotation

Bioinformatics A term of art referring to analysis and commentary added to sequence data in databases, which provide contextual information about coding and non-coding sequence within genes, patterning and motifs, similarities, known or predicted protein structure and function, and links to external data (e.g., clinical observations).
Informatics A critical or explanatory note, usually included in a bibliographical entry or reference, to provide additional data.

annotation

process used in GENOMICS for analysis of NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCES to identify the GENES (both PROTEIN-coding and protein non-coding, such as those for rRNA and tRNA), their regulatory sequences (see OPERON MODEL and their functions. Annotation also includes characterization of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS and REPETITIVE DNA. See also BIOINFORMATICS.
References in periodicals archive ?
The annotations are specific comments and notes on a song's words, lines, or sections.
Based on previous studies, homework is not only helpful for enhancing individual learning, but it is a useful way to facilitate peer learning through sharing annotation progresses.
In section 4, we build a common process semantic annotation model (CPSAM) whose concepts are extracted from common and shared ontological concepts.
We observe that ranking and annotation procedures are dependent on each other in practice.
0 goes well beyond, representing inputs from other modalities (ink, camera, biometrics), supporting integration of composite multimodal inputs that combine speech and clicking or typing, and providing detailed annotations such as timestamping, which can be extremely useful for logging, analysis, and tuning.
Section 2 introduces the framework of co-training based automatic image annotation and its mathematics expression.
Annotations serve many additional roles, such as educating new project team members, reporting progress or meeting regulatory requirements.
A major impediment to comparing gene expression data and subsequent data quality across platforms is resolving the annotation of the gene features arrayed on the chips.
Perhaps the most interesting thing in Gates's annotations is his presentation of Uncle Tom as a strong, muscular man and a real sexual being, instead of the passive character that Baldwin claimed he was.
While letters and memoirs form the core of the book--and are very useful--, the short analytical essays that comprise the rest of the chapters, the extensive annotations, and the appendices all also offer a wealth of information and insight into Irish emigration prior to 1830 and a number of important questions related to that migration.
Such annotations have long attracted the attention of literary scholars, art historians, and scholars working in the history of reading and book history, all of whom have used them to reconstruct how readers have interacted with and used texts.