Clinical findings: At initial evaluation, ankyloblepharon
of the left eye was observed, with no upper or lower eyelid margins and a large, round, fluctuant subcutaneous mass over the left orbit.
At later stages, the eyelids grow together and the conjunctival sac is obliterated (ankyloblepharon
) (Figure 1).
The condition was diagnosed as Ankyloblepharon
filiforme adnatum and managed surgically.
filiforme adnatum (AFA) is a rare benign congenital anomaly where the developing ciliary upper and lower eyelid margins remain fused until the fifth month of gestation, but may not be completely separated until the seventh month Ankyloblepharon
filiforme adnatum is usually a sporadic isolated malformation.
Congenital fusion of jaw and ankyloblepharon
filiforme adnatum: Malformation and multiple systems anomaly.
Ophthalmic infections known to occur with HSV include blepharoconjunctivitis, keratouveitis, acquired ankyloblepharon
, and membranous tarsal plaque.
Corneal scarring, xerophthalmia, ankyloblepharon
uveitis, cataract, symblephara, cicatricial entropion or ectropion, and trichiasis may occur subsequently [42-46].
Lamartine in 2003 has described various well defined ectodermal dysplasia as Hypohidrotic (anhidrotic), Hidrotic (Clouston'syndrome), Ectrodactyly-Ectodermal dysplasia-cleft syndrome (EEC), Rapp-Hodgkin Syndrome, Hay-Wells syndrome or ankyloblepharon
is the condition characterized by fusion of the eyelids to each other along the lid margins.
It is characterised by ectodermal abnormalities, fused eyelids (ankyloblepharon
) and facial clefting, and is also known as Hay-Wells syndrome [Fete et al., 2009].
Ocular involvement, including chemosis, blepharoconjunctivitis, keratitis, symblepharon, ankyloblepharon
, cicatricial ectropion, and mydriasis, was reported in 89% of the affected birds.
Key words: ocular trauma, ankyloblepharon
, microsurgery, eyelids, psittacine birds, avian, cockatiel, Nymphicus hollandicus