3D Finite Element Analysis of Ankle-Foot Orthosis
on Patients with Unilateral Foot Drop: A Preliminary Study.
Hermens, "The effect of an ankle-foot orthosis
on walking ability in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial," Clinical Rehabilitation, vol.
Yasui, "Development of an ankle-foot orthosis
with an oil damper," Prosthetics and Orthotics International, vol.
Figure 4.Energy return ratio comparison between testing and prediction(relative errors for ankle-foot orthosis
[AFO] 1, AFO2, and AFO3 are 2.68%, 0.02%, and 19.09%, respectively).F Testing (Average) prediction AFO1 96.80% 94.20% AFO2 88.20% 81.18% AFO3 77.40% 62.26% Note: Table made from bar graph.
Effects of an ankle-foot orthosis
on balance and walking after stroke: a systematic review and pooled meta-analysis.
He was prescribed an ankle-foot orthosis
, but rarely used it because he said it was uncomfortable.
Patient was able to walk with a custom-made plastic ankle-foot orthosis
(PAFO) and a walker.
Assistive Joint Constraint Device Hip Knee Ankle FNS IRGO Only IRGO Locked Locked None FNS Only None None AFO Open-Loop HNPIRGO IRGO SCKM Locked Open-Loop HNP open VCHM SCKM Locked Open-Loop HNP VCHM SCKM Locked Rule-Based Feedback AFO = ankle-foot orthosis
, FNS = functional neuromuscular stimulation, HNP = hybrid neuroprosthesis, IRGO = isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis, SCKM = stance-control knee mechanism, VCHM = variable-constraint hip mechanism.
These mechanisms include a double-shell ankle-foot orthosis
that pushes up on a control rod during weight-bearing, a hinged footplate that engages knee-flexion resistance based on ankle angle, or a pneumatic bladder that engages upon weight-bearing.
The prescribed orthoses were as follows: resting splint (n:10), hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis (HKAFO) (long leg walking brace) [n=21, 46%; (17 (37%) with waist belt)], metal ankle-foot orthosis
(short leg walking brace) (n=6, 13%), plastic ankle-foot orthosis
[(n=7; hinged 5 (11%), 2 solid (4%)], and posterior shell (n=8, 17%).
The first system to be introduced clinically for gait compensation was a mechanical structure that locked or limited joint movement during the stance phase of gait, such as the ankle-foot orthosis
(AFO), the knee-AFO (KAFO), or the hip-KAFO (HKAFO), depending on the specific joint weakness.
The ankle-foot orthosis
(AFO) constrained the ankle joint to neutral.