, fipexide, oxiracetam, pramiracetam, pyroglutamate, vinpocetine and many other new molecules in clinical trials.
Decreases in frequency and amplitude of spontaneous AMPA receptor--mediated currents were found in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons from 18- to 27-day-old rats exposed to ethanol in utero, and this effect was ameliorated by postnatal administration of an agent that stimulates AMPA receptor function (i.e., aniracetam) (see table 1) (Wijayawardhane et al.
Aniracetam reversed learning and memory deficits following prenatal ethanol exposure by modulating functions of synaptic AMPA receptors.
* does not use cognitive-boosting medications (including co-dergocrine mesyiate tablets, Duxil, Acetamide Pyrrolidone, aniracetam
, etc.) within two weeks of entering the trial;
Presently, the allopathic system of medicine principally relies on nootropic agents, such as piracetam, aniracetam
, fosracetam, nefiracetam, etc., and anticholinesterases, such as donepezil, metrifonate, rivastigmine, etc.
Interactions between oxiracetam, aniracetam
and scopolamine on behavior and brain acetylcholine.
Out of 43 studies where herbal medicines were used as monotherapies, 37 reported that the herbal interventions exerted significantly greater effects than the conventional medicines (piracetam, aniracetam
, hydergine, etc.) or placebos.
Based on the pyrrolidone bioactive skeleton, several piracetam-like drugs known as racetams were developed for the treatment of CNS disorders with cognitive disability, such as oxiracetam, pramiracetam, aniracetam
and phenylpiracetam (Malykh and Sadaie, 2010).
Bai and colleagues  found that combining antipsychotics and aniracetam could mitigate the cognitive impairment of individuals with schizophrenia, especially their problems in memory processing.
Effect of aniracetam on memory disorders in patients with schizophrenia.
(50) GPC proved superior to placebo to the smart drug aniracetam
and the synthetic antioxidant idebenone.
One study compared HM with another stronger nootropic compound Aniracetam
. One study compared HM with Piracetam + hydergine and one study compared HM with Piracetam + vitamin E + respiratory stimulant Duxil (almitrine).