Chromatin condensation in cat spermatozoa during epididymal transit as studied by aniline blue
and acridine orange staining.
staining as a marker of sperm chromatin defects associated with different semen characteristics discriminates between proven fertile and suspected infertile men.
Several tests such as TdT (terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, aniline blue
straining, chromomycin A3 and acridine orange (AO) staining have been described to determine the extent of DNA damage.
Each slide containing 150 to 400 pollen grains was visually counted, scoring pollen grains as germinated (pollen tube longer than pollen grain diameter) or nongerminated, for B & K and B & K + aniline blue
Nucleus, nucleoli, and cytoplasm stained with aniline blue
Pollen was stained with aniline blue
lactophenol to increase visibility and indicate viability (Kearns and Inouye, 1993).
Acidic Aniline Blue
Staining (AABS): During histone replacement with protamines and chromatin condensation in spermatogenesis, normal sperm do not stain with aniline blue
, but sperm with defective density or immature sperm absorb the stain (28).
To further assess the importance of semen routine parameters and sperm chromatin integrity on ICSI outcomes, we conducted an experimental study to determine the relationship between sperm chromatin status using four cytochemical staining assays [Chromo mycin A3 (CMA3) for protamine deficiency, Aniline Blue
(AB) for abnormal persistence of histones, Toluidine Blue (TB) and Acridine Orange (AO) for DNA abnormality] and ART results (fertilization rate, cleavage rate and embryo quality) during the ICSI treatment.
Pollen viability was estimated by utilizing the lactophenol aniline blue