angular stomatitis


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Related to angular stomatitis: cheilosis, glossitis

stomatitis

 [sto″mah-ti´tis] (pl. stomati´tides)
inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth; it may be caused by any of numerous diseases of the mouth or it may accompany another disease. Both gingivitis and glossitis are forms of stomatitis.

Causes. The causes of stomatitis vary widely, from a mild local irritant to a vitamin deficiency or infection by a possibly dangerous disease-producing organism. Inflammation may arise from actual injury to the inside of the mouth, as from cheek-biting, jagged teeth, tartar accumulations, and badly fitting dentures. Irritating substances, including alcohol, and tobacco, may also cause stomatitis. Other causes are infectious bacteria, such as streptococci and gonococci or those causing necrotizing ulcerative stomatitis, diphtheria, and tuberculosis; the fungus causing thrush; or the viruses causing herpes simplex and measles. Extreme vitamin deficiencies can result in mouth inflammation, as can certain blood disorders. Poisoning with heavy metals, such as lead or mercury, can also cause stomatitis.
Symptoms. There is generally swelling and redness of the tissues of the mouth, which may become quite sore, particularly during eating. The mouth may have an unpleasant odor. In some types of stomatitis the mouth becomes dry, but in others there is excessive salivation. Ulcerations may appear, and, in extreme cases, gangrene (gangrenous stomatitis).

Other forms of stomatitis may occasionally cause more severe symptoms, including chills, fever, and headache. Sometimes bleeding or white patches in the mouth can be seen. In thrush, the symptoms themselves may be slight (white spots in the mouth resembling milk curds) but the disease may give rise to serious infections elsewhere in the body. In some cases, stomatitis causes inflammation of the parotid glands.

Stomatitis resulting from certain diseases presents special identifying symptoms. Syphilitic stomatitis produces painful ulcers in the mouth; in scarlet fever the tongue first has a strawberry color, which then deepens to a raspberry hue; in measles, Koplik's spots appear.
Treatment and Prevention. The treatment varies according to the cause. When the inflammation is caused by anemia, vitamin deficiency, or any infection of the body, both the underlying disease and the stomatitis are treated. Antibiotics often are effective against the infection and prevent its spreading to the parotid glands. Severe stomatitis can be a side effect of chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck as treatment for cancer. Measures to alleviate the inflammation and promote healing include increasing fluid intake and using artificial saliva to minimize dryness and help buffer acidity in the mouth, avoiding liquids and foods that are chemically irritating or extremely hot, and frequent and consistent mouth care.



With proper care, many cases of stomatitis can be prevented. Cleanliness is essential, especially of the mouth, teeth, dentures, and feeding utensils. Infants may acquire mouth infection from the mother's oral flora, dirty bottles, or the mother's nipples. In the case of a prolonged fever or of any severe general illness, dryness of the mouth should be avoided by ingestion of increased amounts of fluids.
angular stomatitis superficial erosions and fissuring at the angles of the mouth; it may occur in riboflavin deficiency and in pellagra or result from overclosure of the jaws in denture wearers. Called also perlèche.
aphthous stomatitis recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
denture stomatitis inflammation of the oral mucosa seen in some patients with new dentures or with old, ill-fitting ones, caused by Candida albicans; characterized by redness, swelling, and pain of mucosa that is in contact with the denture. Called also chronic atrophic candidiasis and denture sore mouth.
gangrenous stomatitis see noma.
herpetic stomatitis herpes simplex involving the oral mucosa and lips, characterized by the formation of yellowish vesicles that rupture and produce ragged painful ulcers covered by a gray membrane and surrounded by an erythematous halo.
stomatitis medicamento´sa stomatitis due to an allergic reaction to drugs ingested, absorbed through the skin or mucosa, or given by hypodermic injection. Principal symptoms include vesicles, erosion, ulcers, erythema, purpura, angioedema, burning, and itching.
recurrent aphthous stomatitis a recurrent disease of unknown etiology, characterized by one or more small round or oval ulcer(s) on the oral mucosa, covered by a grayish fibrinous exudate and surrounded by a bright red halo. The lesions usually persist for 7 to 14 days and then heal without scarring. Called also aphthae, aphthous stomatitis, and canker sore.

an·gu·lar chei·li·tis

inflammation and fissuring radiating from the commissures of the mouth secondary to predisposing factors such as lost vertical dimension in denture wearers, nutritional deficiencies, atopic dermatitis, or Candida albicans infection.

angular stomatitis

See perlèche.

angular cheilitis

A condition characterised by inflammation, exudation, maceration and fissuring at the angles of the lips.

Aetiology
Angular cheilitis is most often linked to candidiasis, but is also related to the decreased vertical dimension of lower face in edentulous elderly with loss of alveolar bone; sagging of cheeks due to myotonia; sialorrhoea; ariboflavinosis (with glossitis, keratitis and seborrhoea-like dermatitis); malnutrition; streptococcal infection.

an·gu·lar chei·lo·sis

(ang'gyŭ-lăr kī-lō'sis)
Reddish inflammation of the lip or lips and production of fissures that radiate from the angles of the mouth.
Synonym(s): angular cheilitis, angular stomatitis.

stomatitis

inflammation of the mucosa of the mouth. It may be caused by one of many diseases of the mouth or it may accompany another disease. Both gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) and glossitis (inflammation of the tongue) are forms of stomatitis as are palatitis (or lampas in horses) and cheilitis (inflammation of lips). The specific identification of stomatitis is an important part of a clinical examination in a food animal because of the need to identify the highly infectious vesicular diseases and bluetongue.

angular stomatitis
superficial erosions and fissuring at the angles (commissures) of the mouth.
catarrhal stomatitis
diffuse erythema of lips, tongue, cheeks; causes some discomfort and unwillingness to eat.
contagious pustular stomatitis
erosive stomatitis
erosive-ulcerative stomatitis
advanced stage of stomatitis characterized by multiple erosions and deeper ulcers; complete anorexia results.
mycotic stomatitis
see mycotic stomatitis.
necrotic stomatitis of calves
see oral necrobacillosis.
papular stomatitis
see bovine papular stomatitis.
stomatitis-pneumoenteritis complex
proliferative stomatitis
a very rare disease of cattle said to be caused by a filterable agent and recorded only in association with such conditions as chlorinated naphthalene poisoning. The lesions are papular and may also occur on the teats.
vesicular stomatitis
stomatitis characterized by vesicular lesions which soon rupture to leave denuded areas which become infected, necrotic, even ulcerative. See also vesicular stomatitis, vesicular exanthema of swine, swine vesicular disease, foot-and-mouth disease.