angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

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Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors



Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (also called ACE inhibitors) are medicines that block the conversion of the chemical angiotensin I to a substance that increases salt and water retention in the body.


ACE inhibitors are used in the treatment of high blood pressure. They may be used alone or in combination with other medicines for high blood pressure. They work by preventing a chemical in the blood, angiotensin I, from being converted into a substance that increases salt and water retention in the body. Increased salt and water retention lead to high blood pressure. ACE inhibitors also make blood vessels relax, which helps lower blood pressure and allows more oxygen-rich blood to reach the heart.
Treating high blood pressure is important because the condition puts a burden on the heart and the arteries, which can lead to permanent damage over time. If untreated, high blood pressure increases the risk of heart attacks, heart failure, stroke, or kidney failure.
ACE inhibitors may also be prescribed for other conditions. For example, captopril (Capoten) is used to treat kidney problems in people who take insulin to control diabetes. Captopril and lisinopril are also given to some patients after a heart attack. Heart attacks damage and weaken the heart muscle, and the damage continues even after a person recovers from the attack. This medicine helps slow down further damage to the heart. ACE inhibitors also may be used to treat congestive heart failure.


ACE inhibitors are available only with a physician's prescription and come in tablet, capsule, and injectable forms. Some commonly used ACE inhibitors are benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), fosinopril (Monopril), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace) and trandolapril (Mavik).

Recommended dosage

The recommended dosage depends on the type of ACE inhibitor and the medical condition for which it is being taken. Check with the physician who prescribed the drug or the pharmacist who filled the prescription for the correct dosage.
This medicine may take weeks to noticeably lower blood pressure. Take it exactly as directed.
Do not stop taking this medicine without checking with the physician who prescribed it.


A person taking an ACE inhibitor should see a physician regularly. The physician will check the blood pressure to make sure the medicine is working as it should and will note any unwanted side effects. People who have high blood pressure often feel perfectly fine. However, they should continue to see their physicians even when they feel well so that the physician can keep a close watch on their condition. It is also important for patients to keep taking their medicine even when they feel fine.
ACE inhibitors will not cure high blood pressure, but will help control the condition. To avoid the serious health problems that high blood pressure can cause, patients may have to take medicine for the rest of their lives. Furthermore, medicine alone may not be enough. Patients with high blood pressure may also need to avoid certain foods, such as salty snacks, and keep their weight under control. The health care professional who is treating the condition can offer advice on what measures may be necessary. Patients being treated for high blood pressure should not change their diets without consulting their physicians.
Anyone taking this medicine for high blood pressure should not take any other prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medicine without first checking with his or her physician. Some medicines, such as certain cold remedies, may increase blood pressure.

Key terms

Arteries — Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body.
Chronic — A word used to describe a long-lasting condition. Chronic conditions often develop gradually and involve slow changes.
Enzyme — A type of protein, produced in the body, that brings about or speeds up chemical reactions.
Fetus — A developing baby inside the womb.
Scleroderma — A disease that first affects the skin and later affects certain internal organs. The first symptoms are the hardening, thickening, and shrinking of the skin.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) — A chronic disease that affects the skin, joints, and certain internal organs.
Venom — A poisonous substance secreted by an animal, usually delivered through a bite or a sting.
Some people feel dizzy or lightheaded after taking the first dose of an ACE inhibitor, especially if they have been taking a water pill (diuretic). Anyone who takes these drugs should not drive, use machines or do anything else that might be dangerous until they have found out how the drugs affect them. Such symptoms should be reported to the physician or pharmacist if they do not subside within a day or so. For the first one or two days of taking an ACE inhibitor, patients may become lightheaded when arising from bed in the morning. Patienst should rise slowly to a sitting position before standing up.
While a goal of treatment with an ACE inhibitor is to lower the blood pressure, patients must be careful not to let their blood pressure get too low. Low blood pressure can lead to dizziness, lightheadedness and fainting. To prevent the blood pressure from getting too low, observe these precautions:
  • Do not drink alcohol without checking with the physician who prescribed this medicine.
  • Captopril and moexipril should be taken one hour before meals. Other ACE inhinbitors may be taken with or without meals.
  • Avoid overheating when exercising or in hot weather. The loss of water from the body through heavy sweating can cause low blood pressure.
  • Check with a physician right away if illness occurs while taking an ACE inhibitor. This is especially true if the illness involves severe nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Vomiting and diarrhea can cause the loss of too much water from the body, which can lead to low blood pressure.
Anyone who is taking ACE inhibitors should be sure to tell the health care professional in charge before having any surgical or dental procedures or receiving emergency treatment.
Some ACE inhibitors may change the results of certain medical tests, such as blood or urine tests. Before having medical tests, anyone taking this medicine should alert the health care professional in charge.
Do not use a potassium supplement or a salt substitute that contains potassium without first checking with the physician who prescribed the ACE inhibitor.
Patients who are being treated with bee or wasp venom to prevent allergic reactions to stings may have a severe allergic reaction to certain ACE inhibitors.

Special conditions

People with certain medical conditions or who are taking certain other medicines can have problems if they take ACE inhibitors. Before taking these drugs, be sure to let the physician know about any of these conditions.
ALLERGIES. Anyone who has had unusual reactions to an ACE inhibitor in the past should let his or her physician know before taking this type of medicine again. The physician should also be told about any allergies to foods, dyes, preservatives, or other substances.
PREGNANCY. The use of ACE inhibitors in pregnancy can cause serious problems and even death in the fetus or newborn. Women who are pregnant or who may become pregnant should check with their physicians before using this medicine. Women who become pregnant while taking this medicine should check with their physicians immediately.
BREASTFEEDING. Some ACE inhibitors pass into breast milk. Women who are breastfeeding should check with their physicians before using ACE inhibitors.
OTHER MEDICAL CONDITIONS. Before using ACE inhibitors, people with any of these medical problems should make sure their physicians are aware of their conditions:
  • diabetes
  • heart or blood vessel disease
  • recent heart attack or stroke
  • liver disease
  • kidney disease
  • kidney transplant
  • scleroderma
  • systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
USE OF CERTAIN MEDICINES. Taking ACE inhibitors with certain other drugs may affect the way the drugs work or may increase the chance of side effects.

Side effects

The most common side effect is a dry, continuing cough. This usually does not subside unless the medication is stopped. Ask the physician if the cough can be treated. Less common side effects, such as headache, loss of taste, unusual tiredness, and nausea or diarrhea also may occur and do not need medical attention unless they are severe or they interfere with normal activities.
More serious side effects are rare, but may occur. If any of the following side effects occur, check with a physician immediately:
  • swelling of the face, lips, tongue, throat, arms, legs, hands, or feet
  • itchy skin
  • sudden breathing or swallowing problems
  • chest pain
  • hoarseness
  • sore throat
  • fever and chills
  • stomach pain
  • yellow eyes or skin
In addition, anyone who has any of the following symptoms while taking an ACE inhibitor should check with his or her physician as soon as possible:
  • dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting
  • confusion
  • nervousness
  • fever
  • joint pain
  • numbness or tingling in hands, feet, or lips
  • weak or heavy feeling in the legs
  • skin rash
  • irregular heartbeat
  • shortness of breath or other breathing problems
Other side effects may occur. Anyone who has unusual symptoms after taking an ACE inhibitor should get in touch with his or her physician.


ACE inhibitors may interact with certain foods and other medicines. For example, captopril (Capoten) interacts with food and should be taken one hour before meals. Anyone who takes ACE inhibitors should let the physician know all other medicines he or she is taking and should ask about foods that should be avoided. Among the foods and drugs that may interact with ACE inhibitors are:
  • water pills (diuretics)
  • lithium, used to treat bipolar disorder
  • tetracycline, an antibiotic
  • medicines or supplements that contain potassium
  • salt substitutes that contain potassium
The list above may not include everything that interacts with ACE inhibitors. Be sure to check with a physician or pharmacist before combining ACE inhibitors with any other prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicine.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


 (ACE) [an″je-o-ten´sin]
a vasoconstrictive substance formed in the blood when renin is released from the juxtaglomerular apparatus in the kidney. The enzymatic action of renin acts on angiotensinogen to form the decapeptide angiotensin I, which is relatively inactive. It in turn is acted upon by peptidases (converting enzymes), chiefly in the lungs, to form the octapeptide angiotensin II, a powerful vasopressor and a stimulator of aldosterone secretion by the adrenal cortex. By its vasopressor action, it raises blood pressure and diminishes fluid loss in the kidney by restricting blood flow. Angiotensin II is hydrolyzed in various tissues to form heptapeptide angiotensin III, which has less vasopressor activity but more effect on the adrenal cortex.
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) an enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes cleavage of a dipeptide from the C-terminal end of angiotensin I to form activated angiotensin II; called also peptidyl-dipeptidase A.
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors competitive inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme, which converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and inactivates bradykinin. ACE inhibitors, such as captopril, are antagonists of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and potentiators of the kinin system and are used for treatment of hypertension, usually in conjunction with a diuretic. They are also used as vasodilators in the treatment of congestive heart failure.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors

A class of drugs used in the treatment of raised blood pressure and to assist in the management of heart failure. They act by preventing the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to angiotensin II. The term is usually abbreviated to ACE inhibitors. They include ENALAPRIL, RAMIPRIL, QUINAPRIL, CAPTOPRIL, LISINOPRIL, PERINDOPRIL AND TRANDOLAPRIL.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Pourmoghaddas, "The role of diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on contrast-induced nephropathy in patients after percutaneous coronary intervention," Journal of Isfahan Medical School, vol.
"National patterns of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use in congestive failure." Arch intern Med.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in the management of cardiac failure: are we ignoring the evidence?
Pregnancy outcome based on timing of exposure to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), by week of last exposure(*)--United States, Canada, and Israel, 1987-1995
The patient was prescribed by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, warfarin, statins and diuretics.
These drugs are often overprescribed, as a result of aggressive marketing and in the absence of evidence that they are better than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. ARBs can be reserved for paients with intolerance to ACE inhibitors." Using ARBs more selectively will also save money, "since nearly all ARBs are proprietary while ACE inhibitors are generic."
Drugs that prevent ischemic events, or lessen their impact, such as anticoagulants, statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and aldosteron antagonists, all reduce the incidence of sudden death.
SEATTLE -- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors that cross the bloodbrain barrier slow mental decline by about 50% relative to the decline seen in patients on other antihypertensives, according to an observational study of 1,074 hypertensive subjects followed for a median of 6 years.
With regard to antihypertensive drugs, 53% were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, 28% diuretics, 17% angiotensin II receptor blockers, 14% [beta]-adrenergic blocking agents, 12% calcium channel blockers, and 1% [alpha]-adrenergic blocking agents.
Keywords: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors; In vitro colorimetric assay; Screening; Plant extracts
The most problematic class of antihypertensive agents in pregnancy are the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. They are particularly teratogenic and have been linked to congenital skull defects, oligohydramnios, nephrotoxicity, intrauterine growth retardation, hypoplastic lungs, and increased perinatal mortality.

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