Shing et al., "Angiostatin
: a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that mediates the suppression of metastases by a Lewis lung carcinoma," Cell, vol.
Ito et al., "Angiostatin
induces endothelial cell apoptosis and activation of focal adhesion kinase independently of the integrin-binding motif RGD," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
VEGF and PDGF mRNA expression was increased in the OX-LDL-injected group when compared with the PBS group (P <0.01, n = 10; Figures 4(a) and 4(b)), meanwhile angiostatin
mRNA expression was increased in the Sal A-pretreated group (P < 0.05, n = 10; Figure 4(d)).
inhibits coronary angiogenesis during impaired production of nitric oxide.
Oppositely, macrophage elastase produced by tumor-associated macrophages cleaves plasminogen, thrombospondin, and type XVIII collagen generating anti-angiogenic molecules, such as angiostatin
, thrombospondin fragments, and endostatin, respectively.
Likewise, PLG is activated by proteolysis and converted to plasmin and angiostatin
which inhibit angiogenesis through diminishing activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (Redlitz et al., 1999).
Macrophages are known to specifically secrete MMP-12, which leads to enhanced generation of angiostatin
 and thereby suppresses tumour growth by halting angiogenesis.
Mainly, the tumor suppressor role of these MMPs is related to their ability to degrade plasminogen, collagen XVIII, and collagen IV to produce natural angiogenic inhibitors, such as angiostatin
, endostatin, and tumstatin .
Ma, "Therapeutic potential of angiostatin
in diabetic nephropathy," Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol.
Ashley et al., "Endothelial cell surface [F.sub.1]-[F.sub.0] ATP synthase is active in ATP synthesis and is inhibited by angiostatin
," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
In May 1998, the New York Times published a front-page story by Gina Kolata extolling two new chemical compounds "that can eradicate any type of cancer, with no obvious side effects and no drug resistance--in mice." Kolata reported on the findings of Judah Folkman, of Boston Children's Hospital, whose 30 years of work led to the discovery of angiostatin
It also appears that the MMP system may be involved in regulating angiogenesis in a much more complex manner (Joseph et al., 2008).In addition, MMPs may be responsible for the generation of natural angiostatic substances such as angiostatin
, which inhibits vascular endothelial cell proliferation and is the proteolytic product of plasminogen (16).