diminishes activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK-1 and ERK-2 in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells.
delivers two anti-angiogenic genes, endostatin and angiostatin
, directly to the retina and aims to preserve and improve the vision of patients through anti-angiogenesis which blocks the formation of new blood vessels.
The effect of angiostatin
on vascular leakage and VEGF expression in rat retina.
and matrix metalloprotease expression following ischemic acute renal failure.
showed encouraging results in which its ability to shrink primary tumors and inhibit vascularization as well as metastatic colony development were confirmed both through in vitro and animal models.
and endostatin have not lived up to expectations.
MMP-9 can generate angiostatin
via an interaction with plasminogen, increase its affinity for collagen, interact with intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and be antiinflammatory by processing interleukin (IL)-1(3 from its precursor and by reducing IL-2 response.
For example, Judah Folkman first envisioned the idea of angiogenesis at the beginning of his career, more than forty years ago, yet neither endostatin nor angiostatin
, the potent antiangiogenesis drugs he developed, nor others in this category that have been developed by other researchers, had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in mid-2004.
Under the terms of the agreement, Oxford BioMedica receives exclusive worldwide rights to use EntreMed's endostatin and angiostatin
genes in the development of locally delivered gene therapy for ophthalmologic applications.
Remember interferon, interleukin, angiostatin
, and all the rest?
The pilot clinical studies implied that endostatin and angiostatin
may work too slowly to be clinically useful, said Dr.
Nineteen patients with various cancers received daily intravenous infusions of the drug angiostatin
for up to 6 months without showing any serious side effects, says study coauthor Robert L.