and NSAID-induced small bowel lesions are the most common etiologies in patients 40 years old or older.
Non-CD patients 189 Normal 79 (41.8%) Angiodysplasia
63 (33.3%) Celiac disease 4 (2.1%) Mass lesions 6 (3.2%) Nonspecific changes 31 (16.4%) Angiodysplasia/Polyp 5 (2.6%) Angiodysplasia/Celiac 1 (0.5%) Capsule retention 1 (0.5%) Incomplete study 5 (2.6%) (2 due to gastroparesis) Other complications 0 CD: Crohn's disease.
had noted that PHE included mucosal inflammatory changes such as edema, erythema, granularity, friability, and spontaneous bleeding as well as vascular lesions such as cherry red spots, telangiectasias, angiodysplasia
, and varices .
. It is characterized by limb hypertrophy caused by venous and rarely arterial malformations and skeletal hypoplasia [28, 29].
Cardiac diseases may favor GIB through various mechanisms: ischemia, emboli formation, or through association with a vascular lesion with bleeding potential, such as aortic stenosis and angiodysplasia
, infectious endocarditis--mycotic aneurysm, Marfan syndrome--dissecting aneurysm.
The differential diagnosis may include some benign and malignant gastric neoplasms, such as nonneoplastic gastric polyps; some other soft tissue tumors with lipomatous components/differentiation, such as lipoma, angiomyolipoma, and well-differentiated liposarcoma; and vascular lesions, such as angiodysplasia
and glomus tumors.
There are many possible causes of GI hemorrhage, which include esophageal varices, peptic ulcer, gastritis, polyps, angiodysplasia
, diverticular disease, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and cancer (1).
Vascular lesions of the gastrointestinal tract include hemangioma, telangiectasia, angiodysplasia
and phlebectasia (1) and they account for 5-10% of all benign neoplasms of the small bowel.
The incidence of LGIB ranges from 20.5 to 27 cases per 100,000 in adults in the US [2, 3] and increases markedly with age, reflecting underlying diseases such as diverticular disease, angiodysplasia
, colitis, and neoplasia [2-4].
Several studies have demonstrated that vascular damage occurs throughout the intestinal tract and that mucosal abnormalities (including watermelon stomach, intestinal telangiectasias, and angiodysplasia
) may be present in more than 50% of SSc patients and are usually associated with a more pronounced vasculopathic phenotype (i.e., digital ulcers and pulmonary artery hypertension) .
Prucalopride Control (n = 29) (n = 25) All positive findings 22 11 Angiodysplasia
12 4 Ulcer/erosions 4 3 Fresh blood 6 2 Mass 0 2
The patient's past medical history included a severe hypertensive and valvular heart disease, chronic kidney failure, right carotid stenosis, hiatal hernia, colon angiodysplasia
, and a Raynaud's syndrome.