anergy


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Related to anergy: anergy testing

anergy

 [an´er-je]
1. lack of energy; extreme passivity.
2. diminished reactivity to specific antigen(s). adj., adj aner´gic.

an·er·gy

(an'er-jē),
1. In a person, absence of the ability to generate a sensitivity reaction to substances expected to be antigenic (immunogenic, allergenic).
2. Lack of energy.
[G. an- priv. + energeia, energy, from ergon, work]

anergy

Depression or absence of an immune response to an antigen to which a host was previously sensitive. Anergy is characterised by decreased or absent lymphokine secretion by viable T cells when the T cell receptor is engaged by an antigen; it can be tested by loss of delayed hypersensitivity (e.g., to PPD, Candida antigens or DCNB).

Anergy can be induced in mature and differentiated CD4+ T cells by exposure to complexes of antigen and appropriate (self) MHC in absence of certain uncharacterised co-stimulatory signals on the antigen-presenting cells. In patients who have received blood transfusions, anergy may be induced by presentation of antigen by “nonprofessional” antigen-presenting cells.

anergy

Immunology Depression or absence of an immune response to an antigen to which the host was previously sensitive; it is characterized by ↓/absent lymphokine secretion by viable T cells when the T cell receptor is engaged by an antigen; it can be tested by loss of delayed hypersensitivity–eg, to PPD, Candida antigens, or DCNB. See Clonal anergy, Deletion. Cf Allergy.

an·er·gy

(an'ĕr-jē)
1. Absence of ability to generate a sensitivity reaction in a subject to substances expected to be antigenic (immunogenic, allergenic) in that individual.
2. Lack of energy.
[G. an- priv. + energeia, energy, from ergon, work]

anergy

Specific immunological tolerance in which T cells and B cells fail to respond normally by producing an immune response to antigens. The state can be reversed.

anergy

loss or weakening of the immune response to an irritating agent or ANTIGEN. A T-CELL that encounters an antigen and does not respond to it is anergic. Contrasts with ALLERGY where there is an overreaction, rather than lack of reaction, to a substance.

an·er·gy

(an'ĕr-jē)
1. In a person, absence of the ability to generate a sensitivity reaction to substances expected to be antigenic (immunogenic, allergenic).
2. Lack of energy.
[G. an- priv. + energeia, energy, from ergon, work]
References in periodicals archive ?
The single subunit transmembrane E3 ligase gene related to anergy in lymphocytes (GRAIL) captures and then ubiquitinates transmembrane proteins across the cell membrane.
[107] reported that intrathymic injection of Ag induces apoptosis of immature thymocytes and a subpopulation of mature thymocytes and induces prolonged anergy in peripheral T cells in vivo .
(2007) B-cell anergy: from transgenic models to naturally occurring anergic B cells?
Another theory coming from autoimmune research, which is underlined by several reports, suggests that anergy (as induced by costimulation blockade) is an intermediate between auto-/alloreactive T cells that eventually become Tregs [55].
Takahashi et al., "The anergy induction of M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-reactive CD4+ T cells suppresses experimental sialadenitis-like Sjogren's syndrome," Arthritis & Rhematology, vol.
Chronic immune activation associated with chronic helminthic and human immunodeficiency virus infections: Role of hypo-responsiveness and anergy. Clin Microbiol Rev 2004; 17: 1012-1030.
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression and natural killer (NK) cell dysfunction and anergy in heart failure.
One such interaction is between programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), which is expressed by the T cell, and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), which is the ligand for PD-1; the expression of PD-L1 on a target cell binding to PD-1 can inhibit T-cell receptor signaling and diminish interactions with dendritic cells, resulting in anergy. As a treatment strategy, drugs have been developed to interrupt this interaction; while many drugs are in development the two that have US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval are nivolumab and pembrolizumab, both of which are antibodies that target PD-1 without activating it, in the attempt to interrupt PD-L1/PD-1 interaction.
In this stage, the auto-reactive B lymphocytes are eliminated through peripheral tolerance mechanisms (deletion, anergy, follicular exclusion and clonal ignorance) [24].
SATURDAY'S SOLUTION: agape; agar; agate; agent; agnate; anergy; angary; anger; angry; argent; gantry; gape; gaper; garnet; gate; gayer; gean; gear; gent; gentry; gnat; gran; grant; grape; grapey; grate; gray; great; grey; gyrate; gyre; naga; pagan; page; pageant; PAGEANTRY; pager; pang; panga; parang; parget; prang; raga; rage; rang; range; rangy; tanager; tang; tanga; tangy; targe; trepang; yage; yang.
In fact, ICAP is becoming a viable alternative to other in vivo tests because it has increased diagnostic accuracy for latex allergy and can be used in those subjects who have special medical conditions (e.g., extended dermatitis, urticaria in the active phase, cutaneous anergy, recent intake of interfering medication such as antihistamines) that contraindicate the conduction of skin tests [26,27].
(In the United States, PPD is available as Aplisol or Tubersol.) Avoid the former practice of "control" or anergy testing with mumps or Candida antigens because this is rarely helpful in making TB treatment decisions, even in HIV-positive patients.