The results of several studies have suggested that HIV-Infected persons diagnosed as anergic
have a greater risk for active TB than do nonanergic, Ppd-negative, HIV-Infected persons from the same population (15-19).
In addition, two (22%) of the nine anergic
patients had clinically active pulmonary TB; both had sputum specimens that were smear- and culture-positive.
Although patient PB-NK and PE-NK cells are not fully anergic
as they respond to stimulation by IL-2 in the culture medium, however, addition of TGF[beta] or iPE or tmPE fluids resulted in a strong inhibition of this crucial effector function of NK cells, even in healthy donor NK cells, suggesting a predominant role for the PE tumor microenvironment in the establishment of an alternative NK cell activation status.
Enk, "[CD4.sup.+] and [CD8.sup.+] anergic
T cells induced by interleukin-10treated human dendritic cells display antigen-specific suppressor activity," Blood, vol.
Kanchwala et al., "Low levels of NF-[kappa]B/p65 mark anergic
[CD4.sup.+] T cells and correlate with disease severity in sarcoidosis," Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol.
Without these adjunct signals, T cells become anergic
or undergo apoptosis and thus the response against that antigen is abrogated .
Macian, "Interleukin 2 gene transcription is regulated by Ikaros-induced changes in histoneacetylation in anergic
T cells," Blood, vol.
Atthisstage encounterof Bcellswith autoantigens results in negative selection; however, defect in retention of self-antigens due to abnormal expression of CR1 and CR2 may lead to loss of deletion and escape of anergic
, self-reactive B cells to the periphery.
Additionally, the same group demonstrated that anergic
B cells are metabolically quiescent, while B cells chronically exposed to high BAFF level undergo a metabolic switch, rapidly increasing glycolysis on stimulation .
DCs have the capability to favour the differentiation of regulatory T cells and to prolong significantly allograft survival.
Parmiani, "Tumor immunity as autoimmunity: tumor antigens include normal self proteins which stimulate anergic
peripheral T cells," Immunology Today, vol.
In addition, NKT cells become anergic
for several weeks upon engagement of their TCRs .