anemophily

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Related to anemophilous: entomophilous

anemophily

the transfer of pollen from male to female plant organs by means of the wind. The process usually involves cross-pollination between different plants, rather than self-pollination (see POLLINATION). Wind pollination is very wasteful of male gemetes and is fairly rare in ANGIOSPERMS (most having evolved other, more efficient methods in partnership with insects), but common in GYMNOSPERMS such as pines.

Well-known angiosperm anemophilous plants include the grasses (a group containing cereals such as maize, wheat and barley), stinging nettles, docks and plantains.

Various features of anemophily can be recognized in angiosperms: flowers small and inconspicuous, often green with reduced petals; flowers with no nectar or perfume; stamens often long and pendulous (e.g. hazel catkins) or projecting up above the herbaceous plant (e.g. plantain, docks) to ensure efficient pollen dispersal; flowers frequently appear early in spring before leaves can interfere with pollination; stigmata are often branched and feathery to catch the airborne pollen. Compare ENTOMOPHILY.

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o]) Table 2 Attributes of anemophilous species (largely based on angiosperms) Character Character state Observed for E.
Although it is an anemophilous tree, its pollen production and dispersal rate is not very high, resulting in low efficiency of wind pollination and a consequent reduced seed production (ALLISON, 1990).
Shuel (1992) mentioned that anemophilous pollen tends to be comparatively light, dry and more drab in colour compared with entomophilous pollen.
pine pollen (King and Ferguson, 1991), the flowers are shaped to direct an airstream flowing past them through the stigmas (which has the effect of maximizing pollen/stigma contact; King and Ferguson, 1991), and the stigma is large and multi-branched (and thus compares well with the feathery stigma of other typical anemophilous plants, e.
1992) and the production of paniculate, anemophilous infloresences with unisexual male flowers apically, and female or hermaphroditic flowers basally.
It seems that only species that resprout can carry the anemophilous mode of pollination.
Among the anemophilous species, some have most of the typical features, not surprisingly among the Chenopodiaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae, Urticaceae, and the genera Coprosma, Dysopsis, Empetrum, Gunnera, Haloragis, Peperomia, Plantago, and Lactoris (Bernardello et al.
First, in strictly anemophilous species, such as Lolium perenne, plastids first develop into chromoplast, later in elaioplast, and then are resorbed with the other tapetal cell components (Pacini et al.
We argue that the atmospheric parameters specified for neutral conditions are not typical for most anemophilous pollen liberation and dispersal, and present results of simulations using more-realistic parameter-values.
1995: 81) speculated: "Perhaps their presence [orbicules] together with pollen grains, especially anemophilous, will also allow us to relate them with a system for a better dispersion of these pollen grains by the wind.
Cronquist (1981) indicated that Flagellaria is apparently anemophilous, but did not comment on the pollination mode of Joinvillea.