anemophily

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Related to anemophilous: entomophilous

anemophily

the transfer of pollen from male to female plant organs by means of the wind. The process usually involves cross-pollination between different plants, rather than self-pollination (see POLLINATION). Wind pollination is very wasteful of male gemetes and is fairly rare in ANGIOSPERMS (most having evolved other, more efficient methods in partnership with insects), but common in GYMNOSPERMS such as pines.

Well-known angiosperm anemophilous plants include the grasses (a group containing cereals such as maize, wheat and barley), stinging nettles, docks and plantains.

Various features of anemophily can be recognized in angiosperms: flowers small and inconspicuous, often green with reduced petals; flowers with no nectar or perfume; stamens often long and pendulous (e.g. hazel catkins) or projecting up above the herbaceous plant (e.g. plantain, docks) to ensure efficient pollen dispersal; flowers frequently appear early in spring before leaves can interfere with pollination; stigmata are often branched and feathery to catch the airborne pollen. Compare ENTOMOPHILY.

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Floral biology of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), an anemophilous plant.
Although it is an anemophilous tree, its pollen production and dispersal rate is not very high, resulting in low efficiency of wind pollination and a consequent reduced seed production (ALLISON, 1990).
Shuel (1992) mentioned that anemophilous pollen tends to be comparatively light, dry and more drab in colour compared with entomophilous pollen.
Pollination syndromes Ornithophilous anemophilous melittophilous gall-wasps Actinidia deliciosa x Malus domestica x Medicago sativa x Trifolium pratense x Passiflora spp.
For this purpose, this article is organized into three main sections: (1) a brief review of some basic aerodynamic concepts pertaining to wind pollination, (2) a consideration of the functional traits of most anemophilous species, and (3) a re-evaluation of the data previously reported for the two species of Ephedra.
The pollination modes are: An anemophilous, En entomophilous, Hi hydrophilous.
Pacini (1997) suggested that orbicules are absent in species with a strictly entomophilous pollination in which pollenkitt is present, and that they only occur in anemophilous species (without pollenkitt) and entomophilous angiosperms with a non-specific pollination syndrome: <<Only few taxa with a parietal tapetum with a strong entomophilous syndrome, such as the pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) and orchids lack Ubisch bodies entirely>> (Pacini & Franchi, 1993: 5).
The Cyperaceae (5,000 spp., 109 genera, 14 tribes; Goetghebeur, 1998) is a cosmopolitan clade (Jones et al., 2007) of mainly anemophilous, herbaceous plants that is the third largest monocot family after orchids and grasses.
Bergman et al., 1992) and the production of paniculate, anemophilous infloresences with unisexual male flowers apically, and female or hermaphroditic flowers basally.
It seems that only species that resprout can carry the anemophilous mode of pollination.