Messenger RNA expression levels of pregnane X receptor, constitutive androstane
receptor, and glucocorticoid receptor in the liver
The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane
receptor contribute to the impact of fipronil on hepaticgene expression linked to thyroid hormone metabolism.
Control of steroid, heme, and carcinogen metabolism by nuclear pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane
Miller, "Constitutive androstane
receptor-mediated up-regulation of ATP-driven xenobiotic efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier," Molecular Pharmacology, vol.
(119) The court further stated that the utility of the claimed compounds, which were described in specification as being of the "androstane
and pregnane series," need not be "conclusively predicted." (120) With respect to claims directed to the method of forming the claimed compounds, the court generalized the holding of Wilke as imposing only a reduced standard for claims directed to a method of making a product, relative to that required to adequately describe how to use a claimed product produced by the method.
Among transcription factors, nuclear receptors such as constitutive androstane
receptor (CAR) (Qatanani and Moore 2005) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) (Desvergne et al.
A role for the androgen metabolite, 5alpha androstane
3beta, 17beta Diol (3[beta]-Diol) in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.
Furthermore, several nuclear receptors are involved in the upregulation of hCYP1A1; for example, the constitutive androstane
receptor (CAR)  which is also a regulator of the expression of the CYP2A, 2B, 2C, and 3A subfamilies is activated by drugs; the liver X receptor [alpha] (LXR[alpha]) that is involved in lipid homeostasis is activated by oxysterols [38,39]; and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [alpha] (PPAR[alpha]), is activated by fibrates, phthalates, arachidonic acid, and its derivatives [40,41].These receptors bind to their specific responsive elements located in the gene promoter, activate the transcription, and potentiate the induction of hCYP1A1.
Based on the accumulated evidence from data reported in the literature over the last 40 years, NGTxC may trigger hepatocarcinogenesis through different mechanisms, including the activation of Phase-1 enzymes via binding the Constitutive Androstane
Receptor (CAR) (e.g., phenobarbital and some polychlorinated biphenyl congeners), binding the Aryl-hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) (dioxin and dioxin-like compounds), or by inducing peroxisome proliferation via the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPARa) (e.g., hexachlorobenzene) (see Fig.
A second group of chemical sensors comprises nuclear receptors, such as pregnane X, constitutive androstane
, peroxisome proliferators-activated, liver-X, and farnesoid-X receptors, recognising a wide variety of xenoand endobiotics [12-14].
Silva is currently on a temporary suspension from the NSAC after testing positive for the steroids Drostanolone and Androstane
on January 9, and Drostanolone on January 31 following his UFC 183 bout against Diaz.
W badaniach in vitro przeprowadzonych na komorkach ssakow (myszy i czlowieka) stwierdzono, ze TPP jest aktywatorem receptorow CAR (constitutive androstane
receptor--konstytutywny receptor androstanu) i PXR (pregnane X receptor--receptor pregnanowy X) .