As such, we employ the terms androphilia and gynephilia in our discussion of sexual orientation across cultures.
HOW MALE ANDROPHILIA IS PUBLICALLY EXPRESSED VARIES CROSS-CULTURALLY
As should be evident from the discussion above, the manner in which male androphilia is publically expressed varies across cultures (Murray, 2000).
In some cultures, transgendered male androphilia is linked to particular institutionalized labour practices, which often involve specialized religious activities.
Both sex-gender congruent and transgendered male androphilia may occur within a given culture, but typically one or the other tends to predominate (Whitam, 1983).
SOME CORRELATES OF MALE ANDROPHILIA REOCCUR CONSISTENTLY ACROSS DIVERSE CULTURES
Quantitative research indicates that the sex-gender congruent and transgendered forms of male androphilia share numerous developmental and biodemographic correlates that appear to be cross-culturally invariant.
In contrast, in cultures where transgendered male androphilia is the norm, feminine boys develop into feminine adult males.
Taken together, these numerous, cross-culturally uniform biodemographic and developmental correlates of male androphilia indicate that sex-gender congruent and transgendered male androphilia are cultural variants of what is essentially the same phenomenon with a common biological basis.
THE EXISTENCE OF MALE ANDROPHILIA IS AN EVOLUTIONARY PARADOX
Research indicates that male androphilia is influenced by genetic factors (e.