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central obesity (apple shape) with fat excess primarily in the abdominal wall and visceral mesentery; associated with glucose intolerance, diabetes, decreased sex hormone-binding globulin, increased levels of free testosterone, and increased cardiovascular risk.
obesity in which fat is localized around the waist and in the upper body, most frequently seen in men and having a poorer prognosis for morbidity and mortality than the gynecoid type. Compare gynecoid obesity.
central obesityObesity defined as increased waist-to-hip and waist-to-thigh ratios, waist circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter, which is accompanied by an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
obesityEndocrinology A state of excess body fat, which is regarded as a premorbid addiction disorder, defined as 20% above a person's standard weight; the ideal body weight is 21 kg/m2 Epidemiology 59% of Americans are clinically obese, according to a 1995 report by the Institute of Medicine, there has been a 54% ↑ in obesity and a 98% ↑ in superobesity in children 6-9 yrs of age; an obese child is often an obese adult; the patterns may
be established by 3 months of age and linked to ↓ energy expenditure in infants of obese mothers; diet-resistant obesity is characterized by an inability to lose weight despite ↓ caloric intake and ↑ exercise; a certain percentage of diet-resistant obesity is related to underreporting of actual caloric consumption and/or overreporting of physical activity, not due to low energy expenditure Etiology, 2º obesity Endocrine-hypothyroidism, Cushing syndrome, hypogonadism–Fröhlich syndrome, polycystic ovaries, pseudohypoparathyroism Pathogenesis ↑ Lipid deposit in fat cells, ↓ mobilization of lipids from adipocytes, and ↓ lipid utilization; obesity mimics lab findings of type 2 DM–insulin resistance, ↑ glucose, ↑ cholesterol,
↑ TGs, ↓ HDL-C and norepinephrine and depressed sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems Co-morbid conditions See Obesity-related disease Management Diet–balanced hypocaloric or individualized, exercise, behavior modification, hypnosis, bariatric surgery, OTC appetite suppressants, prescription agents–eg, orlistat. See Abdominal obesity, Adipsin, Adult obesity, Body mass index, Central obesity, Childhood obesity, Diet, Eye-mouth gap, Gastric 'balloon. ', Ideal weight, Morbid obesity, Orlistat, Secondary obesity, Superobesity, Upper body fat obesity.
Obesity, classifications of
Age of onset, eg juvenile, mature, in pregnancy or other
• Android obesity Central obesity, 'beer-gut' obesity More common in ♂, more central/truncal in distribution; carries an ↑ risk for DM
• Gynecoid obesity More common in ♀; fat is distributed in the lower abdomen and legs and is less associated with ASHD
• Primary A component of Allström, Blount, Cohen, Carpenter, Laurence-Moon-Biedl, Prader-Willi, and other eponymic syndromes
• Secondary Acquired obesity comprises the bulk of obesity
Type of tissue change, eg hyperplastic or hyperplastic-hypertrophic
an·droid o·be·si·ty(an'droyd ō-bē'si-tē)
Central obesity (apple shape) with fat excess primarily in abdominal wall and visceral mesentery; associated with glucose intolerance, diabetes, decreased sex hormone-binding globulin, increased levels of free testosterone, and increased cardiovascular risk.