androdioecious


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androdioecious

having male and hermaphrodite flowers on separate plants. Compare ANDROMONOECIOUS.
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In both dioecious and androdioecious barnacles, males are always tiny and live attached to conspecific females or hermaphrodites; hence, they are known as dwarf males (see Hoeg, 1995 and Yusa et al., 2010, 2012 for terminology).
Two general hypotheses have been suggested in the determination of hermaphrodite and male sexes in androdioecious barnacles.
Except for a one-directional transplanting experiment in conspecific-attached individuals that were experimentally detached and transferred to the petri dish (Hoeg et al., 2015), no study has evaluated the degree of plasticity of sexual expression in androdioecious barnacles.
The androdioecious barnacle Octolasmis warwickii Gray, 1825 has two types of sexual expression (Yusa et al., 2010): 1) as a hermaphrodite, attached directly to a host crab (mainly of the family Portunidae), or 2) as a dwarf male, attached to the scutum of a large hermaphrodite, and maturing as male at smaller sizes than the hermaphrodites.
In this study, the effects of the original attachment site and the transplanted site on penis length, egg production, and growth were investigated in the androdioecious barnacle Octolasmis warwickii.
In several androdioecious barnacles, including Octolasmis warwickii, this theory appears to be the case, as evidenced by their variable adult sizes and mating opportunities according to attachment site (Yusa et al., 2010; Ewers-Saucedo et al., 2015).
In this respect, it is suggestive that many androdioecious barnacles living in the sublittoral zone are symbionts whose substratum is temporary--for example, crab shells in Chelonibia patula (Crisp, 1983); the surface of sea algae in Balanus masignotus (McLaughlin and Henry, 1972); and gastropod shells occupied by hermit crabs in Koleolepas avis (Yusa et al., 2001).