ancylostomiasis


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Related to ancylostomiasis: ascariasis, enterobiasis

hookworm

 [hook´werm]
a parasitic roundworm, found mostly in the southeastern United States, that enters the human body through the skin and migrates to the intestines, where it attaches itself to the intestinal wall and sucks blood for nourishment. The hookworm most common in the United States and Central America is Necator americanus, which literally means “American killer.” It is about 1 cm (half an inch) long, with sharp hooklike teeth and a muscular gullet used in sucking blood. The female, slightly larger than the male, can lay more than 10,000 eggs a day, any one of which can hatch into a larva and invade the human body. Another common hookworm is Ancylostoma duodenale.
Life cycle of a hookworm. From Mahon and Manuselis, 2000.
hookworm disease necatoriasis, ancylostomiasis, or infection with some other type of hookworm. Once fairly common, it is now largely confined to rural or poor areas where modern sanitation is lacking.

Larval hookworms enter the body by burrowing through the skin, usually that of the sole of the foot. The first sign of the disease may appear on the skin as small eruptions that develop into pus-filled blisters; this condition is sometimes called “ground itch.” The hookworms then enter blood vessels and are carried by the blood into the lungs. After they leave the lungs, they propel themselves up the trachea, are swallowed and washed through the stomach, and end up in the intestines. Here, if left alone, they will establish a parasitic relationship, using their host's body as a source of nourishment.

By the time they reach the intestines, about 6 weeks after they entered the body as larvae, the worms are full-grown adults. Each worm now attaches itself by hooked teeth to the intestinal wall, where it sucks its host's blood by contraction and expansion of its gullet. If large numbers of worms are present, they can cause considerable loss of blood and severe anemia. The symptoms include pallor and loss of energy; the appetite may increase. The thousands of eggs laid every day by each female worm pass out of the body in the stool, in which they can easily be seen. If the stool is not properly disposed of, the larvae that hatch from the eggs may infect other persons.
Treatment and Prevention. A nutritious, high-protein diet supplemented by iron is given to relieve anemia and improve health. Drug treatment is with pyrantel pamoate or mebendazole. When left untreated, hookworms can cause not only anemia but also bronchial inflammation and occasionally stunting of growth, mental retardation, and even death. Hookworm infection can be prevented by installation of sanitary toilets or, if that is not possible, by disposal of human feces in deep holes so that the soil with which the human foot comes in contact is not contaminated. Shoes should be worn outdoors to protect the feet from infection.

an·cy·lo·sto·mi·a·sis

(an'si-lō-stō-mī'ă-sis, an'ki-),
Hookworm disease caused by Ancylostoma duodenale and characterized by eosinophilia, anemia, emaciation, dyspepsia, and, in children with severe chronic infections, swelling of the abdomen with mental and physical maldevelopment.

ancylostomiasis

(ăn′sə-lō-stō-mī′ə-sĭs, ăng′kə-lō-)

an·cy·lo·sto·mi·a·sis

(an'si-lo-stō-mī'ă-sis)
Hookworm disease caused by Ancylostoma duodenale and characterized by eosinophilia, anemia, emaciation, dyspepsia, and, in children with severe chronic infections, swelling of the abdomen and mental and physical maldevelopment.

ancylostomiasis

The disease caused by, or the effects of, heavy hookworm infestation. The main features are ANAEMIA and loss of weight. Treatment is with one of the range of ANTHELMINTIC drugs.

ancylostomiasis

or

ankylostomiasis

a human disease in which the lining of the small intestine becomes heavily infested with adults of the hookworm Ancylostoma, causing a lethargic, anaemic state.
References in periodicals archive ?
coli infection 94 Leptospirosis 90 Rabies 87 Hantavirus infection 84 West Nile disease 80 Spotted fever, tick-borne 77 Brucellosis 74 Toxoplasmosis 71 Venezuelan equine encephalitis 68 Medium-priority value Listeriosis 65 (from percentile 0.66 Anthrax 61 to percentile 0.33) Campylobacteriosis 58 Zoonotic tuberculosis 54 Western equine encephalitis 52 Flea- and lice-borne typhus 48 Yersiniosis 43 Cysticercosis 43 Trypanosomiasis (Chagas) 39 Yellow fever 36 Low-priority value Echinococcosis 32 (from percentile 0.33 Criptosporidiosis 28 to minimum score) Chlamydiosis 28 Cat scratch disease 23 Toxocariasis 20 Leishmaniasis 16 Borreliosis 13 Trichinellosis 9 Dermatophytosis (ringworm) 6 Scabies 3 Ancylostomiasis 0 TABLE 3.
Although these figures do not get the same public attention, WHO reports that well over 20 per cent of the Earth's more than five billion people are sick or malnourished at a given time, with the ten leading maladies being: Hepatitis B, 2 billion; Tuberculosis, 1.7 billion; Anemia, 1.5 billion; Hookworm (ancylostomiasis), 700-900 million; Roundworm (ascariasis), 700 million; Diarrheal diseases (amoebiasis and giardiasis), 680 million; Whipworm (trichuriasis), 500 million; Malaria, 270 million; Iodine deficiency, 200 million; and Schistosomiasis (parasitic infection), 200 million.
Most cases of human toxocariasis and zoonotic ancylostomiasis can be prevented by simple measures, such as practicing good personal hygiene, eliminating intestinal parasites from pets, and making potentially contaminated environments off limits to children.[3,6,9]