anaphase

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Related to anaphases: telophase

anaphase

 [an´ah-fāz]
the third stage of division of the nucleus of a cell in either meiosis or mitosis.

an·a·phase

(an'ă-fāz),
The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the chromosomes move from the equatorial plate toward the poles of the cell. In mitosis a full set of daughter chromosomes (46 in humans) moves toward each pole. In the first division of meiosis one member of each homologous pair (23 in humans), consisting of two chromatids united at the centromere, moves toward each pole. In the second division of meiosis the centromere divides and the two chromatids separate with one moving to each pole.
[G. ana, up, + phasis, appearance]

anaphase

(ăn′ə-fāz′)
n.
The stage of mitosis and meiosis in which the chromosomes move to opposite ends of the nuclear spindle.

an·a·phase

(an'ă-fāz)
The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the chromosomes move from the equatorial plate toward the poles of the cell. In mitosis a full set of daughter chromosomes (46 in humans) moves toward each pole. In the first division of meiosis, one member of each homologous pair (23 in humans), consisting of two chromatids united at the centromere, moves toward each pole. In the second division of meiosis, the centromere divides, and the two chromatids separate, with one moving to each pole.
[G. ana, up, + phasis, appearance]

anaphase

A stage in cell division (MITOSIS) in which the separated individual chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell in preparation for the division of the cell into two new individuals.

anaphase

a stage of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells (see EUCORYOTE), occurring once in MITOSIS and twice in MEIOSIS. The main process involved is the separation of chromosomal material to give two groups of chromosomes which will eventually become new cell nuclei. This important step is controlled by SPINDLE MICROTUBULES (or fibres) which run from the organizing centre at each pole to every chromosome, the point of attachment being the kinetochore of the CENTROMERE (see METAPHASE).Various theories for chromosomal movement have been put forward, including:
  1. active repulsion of chromosomes,
  2. the idea that when sliding past each other the microtubules may act as tiny muscles (the ‘sliding filament’ theory), and
  3. a suggestion that the microtubules are disassembled at the poles, so ‘reeling in’ the attached chromosomes.
References in periodicals archive ?
The pI-17[alpha] expression levels correlated positively with the frequency of anaphase aberrations (p = 0.005): the higher the levels of the centromeric noncoding RNAs, the higher the percentage of cells that showed bridges and/or lagging chromosomes.
However, approximately 20% of the anaphase cells analyzed after transfection with each chromosome a vector contained bridging or lagging chromosomes in HT1080 and HUES-10 cells (Figures 1(b) and 1(c)).
Laggard chromosomes (Figure 1D and J) were visualized in MPP I and MPP II plants, affecting 16.83% of meiocytes in anaphase I and 35.90% in anaphase II, respectively.
Chromosome grouping during metaphase I and anaphase I led to the formation of chromosome stickiness bridges in telophase I (Figure 1G), observed only in MPP I.
The cells were recorded as normal or aberrant in the different stages of the cell cycle namely: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase or telophase.
Metaphases II showed chromosome numbers that confirmed the reductional segregation of the chromosomes during the preceding anaphase I, including the asynaptic X chromosomes present in the cells with 30 = 14II + 2X.
With respect to the results listed in Table 2, the orange and grape juices of the five food companies, at both exposure times considered, induced significant formation of mitotic spindle changes, represented in this study by colchicine metaphase and anaphase and telophase bridges, proving to be genotoxic, and chromosome breaks, characterized by the formation of micronuclei.