sampling

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sampling

 [sam´pling]
the selection or making of a sample.
the selection of a group of people, events, behaviors, or other elements that are representative of the population being studied in order to derive conclusions about the entire population from a limited number of observations.
accidental sampling a type of nonprobability sampling in which the population selected is easily accessible to the researcher; available subjects are simply entered into the study without any attempt at randomization. Called also convenience sampling.
chorionic villus sampling (CVS) sampling of chorionic villi from the villous area of the chorion, a procedure used for prenatal diagnosis at nine to 12 weeks of gestation. A catheter is inserted either through the cervix or through the abdominal wall and fetal chorionic villus tissue for analysis is aspirated under ultrasonic guidance. This has been used for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal trisomies, hemoglobinopathies, and biochemical disorders. It allows first trimester diagnosis and direct chromosomal and biochemical analysis but does not screen for neural tube defects or certain other anomalies; some of those may be identified by maternal serum and amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein measurements.
A diagram of the technique of transvaginal chorionic villus sampling. From Mueller and Young, 2001.
cluster sampling a type of probability sampling in which the population is divided into groups on the basis of some shared characteristic (such as hospitals grouped by geographic region) and a random sample is drawn from each of these groups.
convenience sampling accidental sampling.
nonprobability sampling sampling in which not every element of the population has an opportunity of being selected for the sample; the sample is not representative of the population and generalizations cannot be made to the population.
percutaneous umbilical blood sampling a procedure used to obtain fetal blood for examination; a sterile needle is inserted through the mother's abdomen and uterus, and guided to one of the umbilical veins via ultrasound. This procedure has begun to replace fetoscopy because it has a lower complication rate. Direct sampling of fetal blood provides more rapid test results than amniocentesis, and a more definitive diagnosis. It can be used to identify chromosomal abnormalities, detect a fetal infection, and assess fetal growth and development. Called also cordocentesis.
Percutaneous umbilical cord sampling, also known as cordocentesis. The needle is advanced through the skin and into the uterus. Once the needle punctures the umbilical cord and one of the uterine veins, cord blood is aspirated by the syringe. From Malarkey and McMorrow, 2000.
probability sampling sampling in which each element of a population has an opportunity of being selected for the sample; its purpose is to obtain a sample that is representative of the population and from which generalizations to the population can be made.
purposive sampling a type of nonprobability sampling in which the researcher consciously selects specific elements or subjects for inclusion in a study in order to ensure that the elements will have certain characteristics relevant to the study.
quota sampling a type of nonprobability sampling in which an accidental sample is adjusted to ensure that certain subgroups are not underrepresented; its purpose is to obtain a sample that is representative of the population to which the researcher wishes to make generalizations.
random sampling probability sampling.
stratified random sampling sampling in which the population is divided into several groups that are alike in certain ways and a random selection is made from each group.
systematic sampling the selection of study objects conducted when an ordered list of all members of the population is available; subjects are chosen from the list at a given uniform interval from each other, using a starting point that is selected randomly.

sam·pling

(sam'pling),
The policy of inferring the behavior of a whole batch by studying a fraction of it.
[MF essample, fr. L. exemplum, taking out]

sampling

An MRI term for the conversion of analog signals to discrete digital values through a preselected measurement process.

sampling

Statistics The obtaining of representative material from a population Surgery A procedure that obtains a soupçon of material for pathologic evaluation, without a formal attempt at complete removal of a suspected or confirmed lesion. See Cluster sampling, Inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

sam·pling

(sam'pling)
The policy of inferring the behavior of a whole batch by studying a fraction of it.
[MF essample, fr. L. exemplum, taking out]

sampling

  1. the act of taking a fraction of substance to be tested or analysed.
  2. the selection of some parts from a larger whole as in statistical sampling.

sampling 

The selection of a group of subjects from a population. This is usually done for the purpose of experimentation. The part of the population selected is called the sample: it is usually considered to be representative of a given population. A good sample must be random, i.e. every possible member of that population has an equal chance of being selected. Otherwise, it is said to be biased. Sampling can extend either across geographical areas (spatial sampling) or over a period of time (temporal sampling).
References in periodicals archive ?
Analyses of the reaction time data revealed a significant main effect for display format, F(2,40) = 22.65, with the pure analog format showing a shorter mean reaction time than the pure digital and mixed analog + digital formats.
* First, the picture is transmitted in a digital rather than an analog format.
AstraSat currently offers, in analog format, six TV channels (movies, sports, music, news and information, general entertainment and family entertainment).
The invention of the first compact disk (CD) in 1982 offered a cheap storage and distribution medium that was used not only for storing paper documents but also for the conversion of audio and video analog formats, such as LPs, cassettes, film reels, and VHS tapes.
The solution is a competitive choice for operators to provide broadband, narrowcast and broadcast services in digital and analog formats. Also, the product family fully meet the requirements set for DOCSIS 3.1 networks as well.
The sound signatures, for instance, from CDs have a very choppy bracket-like readout while the signatures from analog formats roll up and down in wavy patterns, according to Strachan.
According to Jens Ruppert, vice-president and general manager of NDS Surgical Imaging's Surgical Business Unit, it is imperative for operating rooms to use high-quality digital video formats and avoid downscaling or converting to analog formats because it can result in signal attenuation and poorer image quality.
Agencies are also advised to consider the benefits of digitizing permanent records created in hardcopy or other analog formats.
This unusually tight summer show proposed an innovation of that older critical strategy, wherein "pictures" have been superseded by multiplatform and thoroughly transmutable "images." Most of the fourteen artists featured here were born during the years when the Pictures generation was first being identified as such; they make work in which images are submitted to a state of continuous transmission between digital and analog formats, bringing to light the visual and material conditions of twenty-first-century representation and viewing.
Thermal ExSpect printing plates are available in both digital and analog formats of any thermally processed materials.
A new line of hardness testers in digital or analog formats reportedly provides uniform force application and a smoother overall test process.