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anaemiaA condition characterised by decreased red cells or haemoglobin in the blood, resulting in decreased O2 in peripheral tissues. Anaemias are divided into various groups based on cause—e.g., iron deficiency anaemia, megaloblastic anaemia (due to decreased vitamin B12 or folic acid) or aplastic anaemia (where RBC precursors in the bone marrow are depleted).
Fatigability, pallor, palpitations, shortness of breath.
• Megaloblastic anaemia:
– Vitamin B12 deficiency;
– Folic acid deficiency.
• Iron-deficiency anaemia;
• Hereditary defects;
• Sickle cell anaemia;
• Other heamoglobinopathies.
• Acute blood loss;
• BM failure;
• Anaemia of chronic disease;
• Renal failure.
• Vitamin B12;
• Folic acid;
Central (due to BM failure)
• Anaemia of chronic disease;
• Anaemia of senescence;
– BM replacement by tumour;
– Toxicity due to chemotherapy;
– Primary BM malignancy, e.g., leukaemia.
anaemiaA reduction in the amount of HAEMOGLOBIN in the blood. There are several different kinds of anaemia including simple iron deficiency anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, pernicious anaemia, and aplastic anaemia.
anaemiaa deficiency in the number of red blood cells, or in their volume or haemoglobin content.
anaemialower than normal concentration of haemoglobin in the blood, due to a low red blood cell (RBC) count and/or less than normal haemoglobin content in each RBC. Has a variety of causes, most commonly deficiency of iron (required for haemoglobin synthesis) or chronic blood loss. Symptoms include general weakness, shortness of breath and pallor. iron deficiency anaemia is seen not uncommonly in sport and is usually a combination of poor dietary intake and menstrual blood loss. As a result the use of iron supplementation is recommended at a higher than usual ferritin level. See also iron, minerals; Table 1.
|Name and chemical symbol||Reference nutrient intake (adults, per day)||Sources||Functions||Deficiency||Excess|
|Calcium Ca||700 mg||Milk and milk products, green vegetables, soya beans, white bread, hard water||Calcium deposits in soft tissue can occur, but probably not related to high intake|
|Chlorine Cl||3.4 g (as chloride)||Salt-containing foods||Unlikely with normal diet||As NaCl, risk factor for high blood pressure|
|Chromium Cr||25 μg||Vegetables, cereals, meats, vegetable oils, whole grains||Co-factor for some enzymes involved in glucose and energy metabolism|
|Copper Cu||900 μg||Meat, drinking water||Co-factor for some enzymes; intermediate in electron transfer during oxidative phosphorylation||Low activity of antioxidant enzymes||Very high intake can cause liver damage|
|Iodine I||140 μg||Seafood, iodized salt, milk and milk products, meat and eggs||Synthesis of thyroid hormones||Thyroid swelling (goitre) with hypothyroidism: low BMR, lethargy||Rarely any effect; may exacerbate some skin diseases|
|Iron Fe||Liver, kidney, red meat, egg yolk, wholegrains, pulses, dark green vegetables, dried fruit, treacle, cocoa, molasses||Component of haemoglobin, myoglobin and many enzymes||Can be toxic if very excessive. (from blood transfusions rather than from diet); gastrointestinal upset; may promote vascular disease|
|Fluoride F||3-4 mg||Drinking water, mostly as calcium fluoride; tea, seafood||May be important in maintenance of bone structure||Increased risk of tooth decay||Unlikely from dietary sources|
|Magnesium Mg||Cereals, milk, nuts, seeds, and green vegetables||Co-factor for enzymes essential in metabolism; role in calcium homeostasis; skeletal development; neuromuscular function||Uncommon; can occur with malabsorption or in chronic renal failure, when it accompanies hypocalcaemia||Unlikely from dietary sources|
|Phosphorus-P||550 mg (as phosphate)||Milk, cheese, yogurt, meat, poultry, grains, fish||Adenosine phosphate compounds vital in energy metabolism. With Ca in bones and teeth||Only in severe malnutrition; muscle weakness, bone pain, rickets, anorexia, anaemia||In treatment of osteoporosis or bone cancer with biphosphonates|
|Potassium K||3.5 g||Fruit, vegetables, meat, wholegrains||High ECF [K+] (hyperkalaemia) causes cardiac arrest|
|Selenium Se||Seafood, meat, grains, wheat flour||Key component in the endogenous antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase||Health implications of low intake in UK currently under DoH review. May cause abnormality of heart muscle||Excessive supplements: hair loss, skin rash, neurological disorder|
|Sodium Na||1.6 g||Mainly as salt: table salt, and in milk, meat, vegetables, sauces, pickles, processed foods, snacks, cheese||Major extracellular cation; linked to ECF volume, hence to blood volume and blood pressure. Component of bone mineral||Loss in sweat and diarrhoea; dilution in body fluids due to excess water intake. Weakness, cramp; faintness, confusion||Oedema, hypertension|
|Zinc Zn||Red meat, dairy products, eggs, wholegrains, peas, beans, nuts, lentils|
anaemiacondition characterized by reduced numbers of red blood cells (erythrocytes) per mm3 of blood, reduced haemoglobin, packed red blood cell volume and reduced blood oxygenation, so that patients with anaemia are characteristically pale and feel constantly tired; examples include:
aplastic anaemia anaemia associated with bone marrow hypoplasia
Cooley's anaemia see thalassaemia major
iron-deficiency anaemia anaemia due to insufficient iron levels and inadequate haemoglobin synthesis (due to e.g. blood loss, pregnancy, growth spurt, reduced gut absorption, inadequate dietary intake); also characterized by brittle hair and nails, and koilonychia
pernicious anaemia chronic, progressive, autoimmune, macrocytic anaemia of older adults; vitamin B12 is not absorbed due to autoimmune gastric mucosa; also associated with vitamin B12 neuropathy
sickle-cell anaemia inherited disease characterized by sickle-shaped (crescentic) erythrocytes in peripheral blood, and abnormal haemoglobin (HbS); patients are either genetically homozygous (with sickle-cell disease) or heterozygous (as sickle-cell trait)
Patient discussion about anaemia
Q. What is the Treatment for Anemia? I would like to know what are the possible treatments for anemia?
Q. What are the Symptoms of Anemia? Lately I've been feeling very tired. My friend suggested I might be anemic. What are the major symptoms of anemia?
The body also has a remarkable ability to compensate for early anemia. If your anemia is mild or developed over a long period of time, you may not notice any symptoms. Symptoms common to many types of anemia include the following:
Easy fatigue and loss of energy
Unusually rapid heart beat, particularly with exercise
Shortness of breath and headache, particularly with exercise
Hope this helps.
Q. What is the Definition of Anemia? My doctor told me I have anemia, based on my latest blood tests. What is anemia?