anabolic steroid


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steroid

 [ster´oid]
any of a group of lipids with a complex molecule containing carbon atoms in four interlocking rings forming a hydrogenated cyclopentophenanthrene-ring system; three of the rings contain six carbon atoms each and the fourth contains five. Steroids are important in body chemistry and include steroid hormones such as the gonadal or sex steroids, corticosteroids, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids; vitamins of the D group; and the sterols, including cholesterol, the main building block of the steroid hormones in the body. The cardiac glycosides, a group of compounds derived from certain plants, are partly steroids.
anabolic steroid any of a group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone having pronounced anabolic properties and relatively weak androgenic properties; they are used clinically mainly to promote growth and repair of body tissues in diseases or states promoting catabolism or tissue wasting.
gonadal steroid (sex steroid) a steroid hormone produced by a gonad, such as an androgen, estrogen, or progestational agent.

an·a·bol·ic ster·oid

a compound with androgenic properties that increases muscle mass and stimulated protein production; used to treat emaciation; sometimes used by athletes in an effort to increase size, strength, and endurance of muscle. Examples include methyltestosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and stanozolol.

anabolic steroid

n.
Any of a group of synthetic steroid hormones that promote the storage of protein and the growth of tissue, sometimes used by athletes to increase muscle size and strength. Nonprescription sale of anabolic steroids was declared illegal in the United States in 1990.

anabolic steroid

A drug or hormone-like substance chemically or pharmacologically related to 17-α-alkylated testosterone that promotes muscle growth, which are commonly abused by athletes. Lipid changes by ASs are more marked with oral stanazol (manufactured for horses) than with IV testosterone; it decreases HDL-C (especially HDL2) and increases hepatic TG lipase (HDL) catabolism.
 
Indications
Children, adolescents with delayed puberty, decreased growth, small penis, hypogonadism, testosterone deficiency, osteoporosis management, aplastic anaemia, endometriosis, angioedema, sports performance enhancement (no longer legal), relief and recovery from common injuries, rehabilitation, weight control, anti-insomnia, and regulation of sexuality, aggression and cognition.

Route
Oral, parenteral.
 
Metabolic effects
Increased protein synthesis and amino acid consumption, androgenesis, catabolism and gluticocototitosis.
 
Adverse effects (men)
Breast enlargement (gynecomastia), testicular atrophy, sterility, sperm abnormalities, impotence, prostatic hypertrophy, myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, myocardial infarction and fatal arrhythmias, peliosis hepatis, cholestasis, hepatic adenomas, testicular atrophy, peripheral oedema, intracerebral thrombosis.

Adverse effects (women)
Clitoral hypertrophy, beard growth, baldness, deepened voice, decreased breast size.

Adverse effects (men and women)
Aggression and antisocial behavior, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, peliosis hepatis, haemorrhage, jaundice, acne, accelerated bone maturation resulting in short stature, liver tumours (hepatic adenomas and CA) which may regress with abstinence; AS abusers are at an increased risk for HIV transmission, given the common practice of sharing of needles when injecting ASs.

Lab
ASs are detectable to 1 parts per billion 4 days after last use if the hormone is water-soluble, or 14 days after use in lipid-soluble compounds.

FDA status
ASs are schedule-III drugs per the Controlled Substances Act.

an·a·bol·ic ster·oid

(an'ă-bol'ik ster'oyd)
Prescription drug used in treatment of the anemias and other disorders involving wasting of the body; it has been abused by some athletes to increase muscle mass; functions in a manner similar to that of the chief male hormone, testosterone. Masculinizing effects are minimized by synthetically manipulating chemical structure to emphasize tissue-building, nitrogen-retaining processes.
See also: ergogenic aid
Synonym(s): androgenic steroid.
[G. anabolē, something tossed up, a mound, fr. ana, up + ballein, to throw + steroid]

Anabolic steroid

Drugs, derived from the male sex hormones, which increase the rate of tissue growth. They are best known for increasing the rate of muscle development.
Mentioned in: Antianemia Drugs

an·a·bol·ic ster·oid

(an'ă-bol'ik ster'oyd)
Compound with androgenic properties that increases muscle mass and stimulated protein production; used to treat emaciation; sometimes used by athletes in an effort to increase size, strength, and endurance of muscle. Examples include methyltestosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and stanozolol.
References in periodicals archive ?
Anabolic steroids are prescriptiononly medicines that are sometimes taken without medical advice to increase muscle mass and improve athletic performance.
While anabolic steroids can lead to great results in less time, Turinabol is less effective than other products in the same category.  In the case of Turinabol, the action is not immediate and it helps the athletes in building muscles and gaining weight slowly but completely.
A study of 231 anabolic steroid users that was published by the Mayo Clinic in 2016 paints practically the same picture.
Results: A total of 310 male adolescents were surveyed, 64% reported past or present use of anabolic steroids. Mean (SD) age of the body builders was 24.7 (+ 3) years and most (84%) of them were educated.
The law calls for DEA to address products that are "substantially similar" to anabolic steroids and that have been illegally marketed to promote muscle growth.
(2007) acknowledged that more research needs to be conducted on the use of dietary supplements and whether their use is a gateway to future nonmedical anabolic steroid use.
Monthly income and spending among anabolic steroid users Monthly Income Monthly 100-250 251-500 Spending >100 KD KD KD < 500 KD Total >100 KD 3 54 21 4 82(40.6%) 100-150 KD 3 20 46 6 75(37.1%) < 150 KD 6 20 11 8 45(22.3%) Total 12(5.9%) 94(46.5%) 78(38.6%) 18(8.9%) 202(100%) Table 3.
Mancini, adding that there's also danger from the side effects of anabolic steroids.
Butler's admission comes hot on the heels of the British Horseracing Authority's decision to ban trainer Mahmood Al Zarooni for eight years after he admitted to using anabolic steroids on some of his horses.
Androgenic anabolic steroid abuse and the cardiovascular system.
The rats in the treatment group (n = 6) were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally contractile and the anabolic steroid metenolone (20 mg/kg) was injected intramuscularly.