amylase


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amylase

 [am´ĭ-lās]
an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of starch into simpler compounds. The α-amylases occur in animals and include pancreatic and salivary amylase; the β-amylases occur in higher plants. Measurement of serum α-amylase activity is an important diagnostic test for acute and chronic pancreatitis.

am·y·lase

(am'il-ās),
One of a group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related 1,4-α-glucans.

amylase

(ăm′ə-lās′, -lāz′)
n.
Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugars. In humans, amylases are produced in the salivary glands and the pancreas.

amylase

An enzyme synthesised in the pancreas and salivary glands and secreted in the GI tract which digests starch and glycogen. It is measured in patients with suspected pancreatitis: serum and urine levels peak 4–8 hours after onset of acute pancreatitis, and normalise within 48–72 hours. Parotitis due to mumps or radiation therapy also increases serum amylase; cases of increased serum amylase without obvious pancreatitis or parotitis require quantification of amylase isoenzymes.
 
Amylase increased in
Acute pancreatitis; obstruction of common bile duct, pancreatic duct or ampulla of Vater; pancreatic injury from perforated peptic ulcer; pancreatic cancer; acute salivary gland disease.

Amylase reduced in
Chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, cirrhosis, hepatitis, eclampsia.

amylase

Clinical chemistry An enzyme synthesized in the pancreas and salivary glands and secreted in the GI tract, which digests starch and glycogen; amylase is measured in Pts with suspected pancreatitis; serum and urine levels peak 4-8 hrs after onset of acute pancreatitis, and normalize within 48-72 hrs; parotitis due to mumps or radiation therapy also ↑ serum amylase; in cases of ↑ serum amylase without pancreatitis or parotitis, requires quantification of amylase isoenzymes Ref range Varies by laboratory; 25-90 U/L, serum; 4-30 U/2 hrs, urine; amylase is ↑ in acute pancreatitis, obstruction of common bile duct, pancreatic duct or ampule of Vater, pancreatic injury from perforated peptic ulcer, acute salivary gland disease; amylase is ↓ in chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic CA, cirrhosis, hepatitis, eclampsia. See Macroamylase.

am·y·lase

(am'il-ās)
One of a group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related 1,4-α-glucans.

amylase

An ENZYME that converts starch to simpler carbohydrates such as disaccharides and small polysaccharides.
Amylaseclick for a larger image
Fig. 33 Amylase . The splitting of starch to form maltose.

amylase

a digestive enzyme which enables starch to be split by hydrolysis into smaller subunits of MALTOSE, usually in alkaline conditions (see Fig. 33 ).

Amylases are found in the saliva of most mammals (and were previously called ptyalin). Their functioning is limited to the brief time that food remains in the mouth. Once food is swallowed, the acid stomach conditions prevent further amylase activity. The principal location of starch digestion is in the duodenum, where pancreatic amylase is poured into the gut lumen from the pancreas as part of the pancreatic juice; pancreatic amylase has a greater digestive efficiency than salivary amylase. Amylases are common in plants, particularly in association with the starch stores of seeds and underground perennating organs such as rhizomes, tubers and taproots. Amylases are also produced by MICROORGANISMS such as BACILLUS, STREPTOMYCES and the fungus Aspergillus, and are used in the food industry.

Amylase

A digestive enzyme made primarily by the pancreas and salivary glands.
Mentioned in: Amylase Tests, Lipase Test
References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, recombinant alpha amylase could be a good alternative to use at industrial scale with some modifications to withstand adverse reaction conditions.
The measurements of amylase in serum increase 2 to 12 hours after an acute attack and reach peak 12 to 72 hours after the attack.
Starch degrading hydrolytic enzymes have potential application in starch-based industries including food, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, detergent, beverages and leather industry such as [alpha] amylase, amylase, glucoamylase, etc.
lipase/ amylase ratio could be correlated with CT abdomen severity in case of acute pancreatitis.
The aim of this study was to assess the hospitalization and surgery rates depending on serum amylase levels of patients at hospital admission in emergency service, not just for pancreatic disease.
Wolf, "Salivary alpha amylase as marker for adrenergic activity during stress: effect of betablockade," Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol.
Acarbose and cyclodextrin inhibition of barley amylase isozymes," European Journal of Biochemistry, vol.
Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis (11.760/[mm.sup.3]) and increased CRP (37.9 mg/L), but normal amylase (31 U/L) and lipase (20 U/L).
The enzyme activity unit (U.[g.sup.-1]) was defined according to the amount of enzyme capable of releasing 1 [micro]mol of product (reducing sugars) per gram of sample (polysaccharides) under the reaction conditions, using as standard the glucose monomers curve (amylase, CMCase).
Serum amylase and lipase levels are the most commonly requested investigations in the emergency department for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (AP).
Screening of bacterial isolates for protease and amylase production