99% were infected, and morphometric analyses were made of 115 mature amphistomes and gravid eggs with traditional microscopic methods on the basis of standardized measurements.
Amphistomes that have been identified in ruminants encompass more than 70 species.
Adult amphistomes remained attach to the epithelium of the bile duct of domestic ruminants where they inflict sever damage (Fukui, 1929; Mazahery et al.
Amphistomes produce "granulomatous nodules" at attachment sites and infiltrated by numerous inflammatory cells (Haque et al.
The Gigantocotyle explanatum has economic importance in ruminants but presently no reliable methods are available to identify and differentiate this parasite from other amphistomes.
As is evident from the current situation, further studies on amphistomes epidemiology and transmission to animals are required to obtain the baseline data, on which appropriate control measures could be established.
Only adult amphistomes having gravid uteri (n= 115) were included in the study.
An accurate morphometric study has been conducted to establish phenotypic markers for adult amphistomes found in naturally infected buffaloes.
For adult Amphistomes and their eggs, the following measurements were taken for whole mount and sagittal section (Fig.
The comparative morphometric measurements of adult amphistomes species from Pakistan are shown in the Table I with their mean and standard deviation.
Morphometrics with Mean values +-SD of n=115 adult amphistomes in buffaloes from Pakistan, lineal biometric characters in mm, and ratios without units.