amphiregulin


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amphiregulin

A 84-residue bifunctional cell growth-modulating glycoprotein encoded by AREG on chromosome 4q13-q21, which inhibits the growth of certain tumours (e.g., epidermal cancer) and stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts. The carboxy-terminal half of amphiregulin has considerable structural homology with epidermal growth factor and binds to its receptor.
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The expression of Msx2 and amphiregulin mRNAs, two estrogen-regulated genes (Mallepell et al.
Brisken for suggesting the use of amphiregulin in the gene expression studies.
HER Family of Membrane Receptors Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Activity Major Ligands HER1 (EGFR) Yes EGF, amphiregulin, TGF-a HER2 Yes None HER3 No Heregulin HER4 Yes Heregulin Abbreviations: EGF, epidermal growth factor;EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor;TGF-a, transforming growth factor a.
All 4 receptors are topologically similar, comprising 3 domains: (1) an extracellular domain that binds specific ligands, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor a, and amphiregulin, which bind only to EGFR; (2) a hydrophobic transmembrane domain that is involved in interactions between cell surface receptors; and (3) an intracellular domain that shows tyrosine kinase activity.
The erbB family cell-signaling process uses EGF-like ligands that include cell-signaling transforming growth factor a (TGF-[alpha]), amphiregulin, heparin-binding EGF, epiregulin, heregulin, neuregulin, and betacellulin.