Comparison of proposed methods with the methods in literature used for urea determination Method Signal mechanism Linear range, mM Fluorescence CdSe/ZnS-Urease 0-10 Fluorescence CdSe/ZnSe-MSA-Urease 0.01-100 Amperometry
PVC ammonium electrode 15-80 Potentiometry Urease polyurethane-acrylate 0.2-0.6 Phosphorescence Mn doped ZnS QDs-Urease 0.014-60 Phosphorescence MPA capped CdTe-Urease 0.016-0.16 Method LOD, mM References Fluorescence - 17 Fluorescence 0.01 24 Amperometry
15 5 Potentiometry 0.2 9 Phosphorescence 0.014 6 Phosphorescence 0.003 This work LOD: Logarithm of odds, ZNS: Zinc selenide, CdSe: Cadmium selenium, MSA: Mannitol salt agar, PVC: Polyvinyl chloride, QDs: Quantum dots, MPA: 3-mercaptopropionic acid Table 2.
It is impossible to directly compare each carbon electrode to the other due to differences in electrode size (diameter, shape, and morphology), method of electrode construction (i.e., glass, polyimide coated capillary insulations, etc.), and method of electrochemical detection (i.e., amperometry
, differential pulse voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), etc.).
This work presents the development of a flow injection for diazepam determination with differential pulse amperometry
and its application in spiked beverage samples without removal of dissolved oxygen.
Tessema, "Determination of phenol and chlorophenols at single-wall carbon nanotubes/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) modified glassy carbon electrode using flow injection amperometry
," ISRN Analytical Chemistry, vol.
Double layer capacitance effects can lead to increased background signals in amperometry
, lowering S/N.
[O.sub.2] partial pressure ([MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) is measured by amperometry
on the blood gas instrument and should not be affected by the hemoglobin status.
New advances in electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy  and amperometry
of hydrogen peroxide  will hopefully provide a more detailed understanding of the dynamic cellular environment, as both methods are extremely sensitive and can be applied in vivo.
The electrical impedance spectroscopy and amperometry
of polyaniline have also been modified for ammonia gas sensor .
Even though the electrochemical techniques employed, such as amperometry
, voltammetry, or electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), provide these performance characteristics, the relative complexity of the detection procedures and the need for portable detectors enabling the detection of the targets at the point of care motivate the development of more rapid, cheaper, and simpler detection techniques.
It supports DC amperometry
, pulsed amperometry
or integrated pulsed amperometry
measurements were done at 0.45 V for 1800s.
Services include GPC, refractive index, UV, fluorescence, ELS, conductivity, amperometry
, and diode-array detection.