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It is covered by the amniotic epithelium and contains two arteries and one vein that are immersed in the Wharton's jelly (which contains a large amount of fibroblast cells and has an intercellular substance rich in hyaluronic acid) (Figures 1(d)-1(f)) [1, 6].
Caption: Figure 1: Morphology of placental components: (a, b) placental tissue (villi): Tr: trophoblast; Vess: vessels; Mes: mesenchyme; (c) fetal membranes: Am: amniotic membrane; Ch: chorionic membrane; (d) surface cells of amniotic epithelium; (e) cross-section of the umbilical cord; (f) umbilical cord tissue.
Amniotic epithelium showed the correct external projections.
GDM group; Strong expression of MMP9 in basal membrane of vessel wall and amniotic epithelium (arrows).
The umbilical cord begins to form at five weeks after conception which becomes progressively longer until 28 weeks of gestation, reaching an average length of 55-65 cm long with outer amniotic epithelium.
Immunological characteristics of amniotic epithelium. Cornea 2006;25(10 Suppl 1):S53-58.
(21) Fifty per cent of the membranes used for limbal cultures were treated with 0.1 per cent sterile EDTA solution for 30 min and then gently scrubbed with an epithelial scrubber (BD Lincoln Park, NJ) to remove the amniotic epithelium without breaking the underlying basement membrane, as previously described.
Amniotic epithelium produces basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor p.1 These growth factors may modulate proliferation and differentiation of stromal fibroblasts.
Further studies are needed to understand the properties of the amniotic epithelium that retains the sternness in the cultured limbal stem cells.