The activities of polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
were determined according to the methodologies proposed by DUANGMAL & APENTEN (1999) e UMESHA (2006), respectively.
Plants respond to environment stresses in various ways, namely by Reactive Oxygen Species synthesizing in abundance that can trigger the activation of the antioxidant defense system and increase of Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase
enzyme activity that catalyses secondary metabolites formation such as phenolic compounds.
A wide variety of disease resistance genes of mulberry have been isolated, including NBS, MaPGIP1, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
gene (Wang et al., 2015; Zhang, 2009).
Differential induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
gene expression in response to in vitro callus unions of Prunus spp.
After harvested, fruits were transported to the laboratory for biochemical analyses [total and reducing sugars, total proteins, amino acids, total phenols, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
enzyme (PAL), anthocyanins and flavonoids].
Liu, "Multifaceted regulations of gateway enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
in the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids," Molecular Plant, vol.
Molecular cloning, characterizaion and expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
gene from Ginkgo biloba.
Disease reduction by induction of resistance has been accounted for a large number of defence enzymes, including peroxidase (PO) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) that catalyze the formation of lignin and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
(PAL) that is involved in phytoalexins and phenolics bio synthesis.
Properties of Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase
from Marrow Cotyledons.
Fakri, "Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
(PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth)," Molecules, vol.
Mock infected Microarray GC LC Oryzasativaisocitrate lyase (ICL1) 1 Citric acid Succinate Glyoxylate Glucose Pyruvate - [beta]-1, 3 glucanase Chitinase - N-Acetyl-D-glucosamine Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD1) + GABA (4-amino butyric acid) Glutamic acid Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase
(PAL) Phenylalanine Glutathione S-transferases - Oxidized glutathione - Lipid transfer protein b1 + UDP-glucose: salicylic acid - glucosyltransferase (SA-GTase) Uridine 5' diphosphate UDP-glucose Salicylate Gene name & metabolities Transgenic (resistant strain) vs.