TABLE 1 Some Endocrine-Disrupting and Estrogen-like Pesticides Endocrine-Disrupting Pesticides Herbicides 2,4,5-T 2,4-D Alachlor Amitrole
Atrazine Metribuzin Nitrofen Trifluralin Insecticides [beta]-Hexachlorocyclohexane ([beta]-HCH) Carbaryl Chlordane Dicofol Dieldrin DDT and its metabolites Endosulfan Heptachlor and H-epoxide Lindane Methomyl Methoxychlor Mirex Oxychlordane Parathion Synthetic pyrethroid Toxaphene Estrogen-like Pesticides Herbicides 2,4,5-T Insecticides [beta]-HCH Kepone (chlordecone) I-Hydroxychlordene Dicofol Dieldrin p.
, and ethylenethiourea) decrease TH synthesis by inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (Capen 1997, 1998; Hill et al.
For five chemicals (amitrole
, DDT, dieldrin, PBB, DPH), the same tumors were observed from early and/or adult exposures, although the studies for amitrole
, DDT, and dieldrin evaluated the animals only for liver tumors.
a) The chemicals classified as mutagenic were benzidine, benzo(a)pyrene, DEN, safrole, and vinyl chloride; the chemicals classified as not mutagenic were amitrole
, diphenylhydantoin, ethylene thiourea, and polybrominated biphenyls.
Among the most widely used herbicides that interfere with the thyroid system are 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), acetochlor, aminotriazole, amitrole
, bromacil, bromoxynil, pendamethalin, and the thioureas (Brucker-Davis 1998; Howdeshell 2002; Short and Colborn 1999).