All Bcc isolates tested were resistant to aminopenicillins
, carboxypenicillins, and first-generation cephalosporins.
The [beta]-lactam drugs include Aminopenicillins
, Cephalosporins, Carbapenems, and Monobactams.
A diagnostic protocol for evaluating nonimmune reactions to aminopenicillins
. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999; 103: 1186-90.
baumannii was found to be resistant against antimicrobial drugs, such as aminopenicillins
, cephalosporins, first- and second-generation cephalosporins, cephamycins, aminoglycosides, ureidopenicillins, chloramphenicol, and tetracyclines.
(17) Quinolones (25%), macrolides (20%), and aminopenicillins
(12%) were most commonly prescribed, and antibiotic prescriptions were most often written for respiratory conditions, such as bronchitis, for which we now know antibiotics are rarely indicated.
baumannii has several innate resistance mechanisms to a number of antibiotics, such as aminopenicillins
, first-and second- generation cephalosporins and chloramphenicol.
Many isolates of Acinetobacter spp have developed resistance to antibiotics, including until now successful, aminopenicillins
, ureidopenicillin, cefamandole and cephalothin, cephamycin, cefoxitin, most of the aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and the more recent antibiotics, such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime, imipenem, tobramycin, amikacin, and fluoroquinolones .
The main risk factors were more than three UTI episodes in the preceding year, usage of beta-lactam antibiotics in the preceding 3 months, and prostatic disease () In the study carried out in a tertiary training hospital in Switzerland, the analysis of UTI risk factors occurring due to community acquired ESBL-producing E.coli were: older age, female gender, diabetes mellitus, recurrent UTI, invasive urological procedures, and prior use of antibiotics such as aminopenicillins
, cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones ().
in another retrospective study set in an US hospital, with the same population (hospitalized children between 3 months old and 18 years old) in a 15-month period (May 2011-July 2012), had an opposite result, reporting that 63,6% of the pediatric CAP were treated with aminopenicillins
and only 16.8% with third-generation cephalosporins .
We found that the UPEC strains had a higher level of resistance against aminopenicillins
(ampicillin (85%) and amoxicillin (65%)) and a lower level of resistance against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (25%).
As shown by our study and some previous studies, (20,22,30) aminopenicillins
, ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole may not be appropriate choices for empirical treatment of UTI in our setting.
It has been reported that aminopenicillins
and macrolides cause more than 90% of cases of drug-induced AGEP.