aminoglycoside


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Related to aminoglycoside: metronidazole, vancomycin

aminoglycoside

 [ah-me″no-gli´ko-sīd]
any of a group of antibacterial antibiotics derived from species of Streptomyces; they interfere with the function of bacterial ribosomes. They contain an inositol moiety substituted with two amino or guanidino groups and with one or more sugars or aminosugars. The group includes amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, and tobramycin. They are used to treat infections caused by gram-negative organisms and are classified as bactericidal agents because of their interference with bacterial replication. All are highly toxic, requiring frequent monitoring of blood serum levels and careful observation of the patient for early signs of toxicity, particularly ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

a·mi·no·gly·co·side

(ă-mē'nō-glī'kō-sīd),
Any one of a group of bacteriocidal antibiotics derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonosporum and characterized by two or more amino sugars joined by a glycoside linkage to a central hexose; aminoglycosides act by causing misreading and inhibition of protein synthesis on bacterial ribosomes and are effective against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Some commonly used aminoglycosides are streptomycin, neomycin, and gentamicin.

aminoglycoside

(ə-mē′nō-glī′kə-sīd′, ăm′ə-)
n.
Any of a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as streptomycin, derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonospora bacteria and used to treat infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.

aminoglycoside

Any of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics (amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, neomycin, framycetin, streptomycin, tobramycin) which are used primarily against aerobic gram-negative bacteria.
 
Pharmacodynamics
Poorly absorbed per os; poor penetration of CNS-BBB; rapid excretion if kidneys are normal.
 
Types
Gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin.
 
Toxicity
Dose-related (kidneys, vestibular, auditory and neuromuscular systems), minor skin rash, drug fever, decreased Mg2+, decreased Ca2+, decreased K+; it is common practice to monitor patients receiving AGs.

aminoglycoside

Therapeutics Any of a family of broad-spectrum antibiotics–amikacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, netilmicin, neomycin, framycetin, streptomycin, tobramycin, which are used primarily against aerobic gram-negative bacteria Pharmacodynamics Poorly absorbed per os, poor penetration of CNS–BBB, rapid excretion if kidneys are normal Types Gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin Toxicity Dose-related–kidneys, vestibular, auditory, and neuromuscular systems, minor skin rash, drug fever, ↓ Mg2+, ↓ Ca2+, ↓ K+; it is common practice to monitor Pts receiving AGs. See Therapeutic drug monitoring.

aminoglycoside 

Any one of a group of antibiotics composed of amino sugars in glycoside linkage which act by interfering with the synthesis of bacterial proteins. It is used in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Examples: framycetin, gentamicin, neomycin and tobramycin.

a·mi·no·gly·co·side

(ă-mē'nō-glī'kō-sīd)
Any bacteriocidal antibiotic derived from species of Streptomyces or Micromonosporum; effective against aerobic gram-negative bacilli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Six aminoglycoside resistance genes were detected in all strains via multiplex PCR conducted as previously reported with certain modifications: two multiplex PCR amplifications were separately performed using 1) aph(2)-Id, aph(3')-IIIa, ant(4')-Ia primers 2) aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia, aph(2")-Ib, aph(2')-Ic primers, separately.
An increase in the [[[Ca.sup.2+]].sub.i] level greater than 30% may be responsible for triggering the toxic effect of this aminoglycoside on MDCK C11 cells.
ORC-13361 is a new chemical entity currently being investigated for the prevention of ototoxicity which results from treatment with aminoglycoside antibiotics.
Aminoglycoside resistance genes including ant(3")-III, ant(6')-Ia, aac(6')-Ie-, and aph(2)-Id were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
In S.aureus resistance to aminoglycosides, linezolid, tetracyclines, macrolides and licosamide was 55.9%, 26.5%, 73.5%, 55.9% and 55.9% respectively while 100% were resistant to Cephalosporins, Polymyxins, Quinolones, Penicillin, Carbapenems and Glycyclines.
Following the company's successful clinical trials, ORC-13661 may be the first US FDA-approved medicine to prevent hearing loss for patients undergoing aminoglycoside treatment.
The genome of enterococci encodes aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AME).
CDC investigators found the Klebsiella pneumoniae, which the woman contracted in India, totally resistant to 26 antibiotics, including all aminoglycosides and polymyxins, and intermediately resistant to tigecycline (a tetracycline derivative).
Although, a host of studies have tested the effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics on in vitro culture and differentiation [28-31] of stem cells such as bone marrow- or adipose tissue-derived stem cells as well as murine ESCs, as per our knowledge no study has been conducted so far to test the effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics on hESC proliferation and differentiation.
Results from autopsies on patients with CF [5] and renal biopsies [6] have revealed different renal pathologies, including proliferation of lysosomal bodies which has been attributed to aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity [5].