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Generic term for those compounds in which amino acids are esterfied through their COOH groups to the 3'- (or 2'-) OHs of the terminal adenosine residues of transfer RNAs (for example, alanyl-tRNA, glycyl-tRNA); each compound involves one, or a small number, of tRNAs of specific chemical structure. Used in protein biosynthesis.


the molecule produced when an AMINO ACID is activated into its aminoacyl form and attached to its specific TRANSFER RNA molecule, the whole process being catalysed by a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme. Also called charged tRNA.


transfer RNA (ribonucleic acid).

transfer RNA to which its specific amino acid has been coupled by its specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.
aminoacyl-tRNA binding site
one of two tRNA binding sites on a ribosome that holds the incoming tRNA molecule charged with an amino acid. Called also A site.
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases
a set of enzymes that couple each of the 20 amino acids to its appropriate tRNA molecule.
initiator tRNA
a special methionine tRNA that binds to the initiation codon AUG that forms part of the initiation complex at the start of mRNA translation.
peptidyl-tRNA binding site
one of two tRNA binding sites on a ribosome that holds the tRNA that is normally linked to the polypeptide chain. Called also P site.
References in periodicals archive ?
In all, Rodriguez found that separately removing seven different "gears" from a distant part of the molecule each caused the amino acid to bind more tightly to the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.
About Physiocrines Physiocrines are produced from ancient genes, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, which are an intercellular gene family involved in protein synthesis.
Now that we know how AN2690 works, the same approach could be adapted to target other aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases with editing sites, which are also excellent targets for anti-microbial drugs," said Cusack, whose group performed the X-ray crystallography which revealed how AN2690 binds to LeuRS.
Therefore, an RNA-only-based protein synthesis system would require a set of RNA molecules capable of synthesizing aminoacyl-RNAs, which are produced by the protein aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in extant biology.
Cubist has significantly broadened its target pipeline for drug discovery beyond our initial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase targets to include other novel targets," said Francis P.
The Merck collaboration has focused on discovering novel compounds that inhibit the function of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.
Cubist and Pfizer entered into an eighteen-month agreement in December 1995 to screen the Pfizer compound library against certain aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase targets and to conduct secondary screens on certain of the leads.
The focus of the collaboration will be to target specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, a family of 20 enzymes essential to the process of protein translation required for survival of all organisms.
Pfizer will collaborate with Cubist to discover novel broad spectrum antibacterial agents directed toward specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase targets with activity against resistant pathogens.
The Company is focusing on developing small synthetic molecules that inhibit the action of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase class of enzymes involved in protein translation.