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Generic term for those compounds in which amino acids are esterfied through their COOH groups to the 3'- (or 2'-) OHs of the terminal adenosine residues of transfer RNAs (for example, alanyl-tRNA, glycyl-tRNA); each compound involves one, or a small number, of tRNAs of specific chemical structure. Used in protein biosynthesis.


the molecule produced when an AMINO ACID is activated into its aminoacyl form and attached to its specific TRANSFER RNA molecule, the whole process being catalysed by a specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase enzyme. Also called charged tRNA.


transfer RNA (ribonucleic acid).

transfer RNA to which its specific amino acid has been coupled by its specific aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase.
aminoacyl-tRNA binding site
one of two tRNA binding sites on a ribosome that holds the incoming tRNA molecule charged with an amino acid. Called also A site.
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases
a set of enzymes that couple each of the 20 amino acids to its appropriate tRNA molecule.
initiator tRNA
a special methionine tRNA that binds to the initiation codon AUG that forms part of the initiation complex at the start of mRNA translation.
peptidyl-tRNA binding site
one of two tRNA binding sites on a ribosome that holds the tRNA that is normally linked to the polypeptide chain. Called also P site.
References in periodicals archive ?
This bias exists among the 61 amino acid codons found in mRNA molecules, and the levels of aminoacyl-tRNAs seem to correlate with the frequency of codon usage [3,4].
Rodriguez performed many laborious experiments in which she removed portions of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase that interact with the anticodon stem of the transfer RNA, far from the part of the enzyme that binds the amino acid.
24)] Miscellaneous Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase autoantibodies [Park et al.
The aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases help establish the rules of the genetic code, by mediating the translation of DNA to protein.
11:00 Size Identification of Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases from Plants
In these 36 reports, contributors describe their most recent research in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, the point in gene expression in which the genetic code is first defined.
Furthermore, the full complement of aminoacyl-tRNAs necessary for translation is not entirely formed by the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS).
The existence of a complex of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in plants is still in question.
Translational accuracy of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: implications for atherosclerosis.
This depurination of the SR loop results in irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis at the translation step by impairing both the elongation factor (EF) 1-dependent binding of aminoacyl-tRNA and the GTP-dependent binding of EF-2 to the affected ribosome (Gessner and Irvin, 1980).
Root of the universal tree of life based on ancient aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase gene duplications.
Therefore, an RNA-only-based protein synthesis system would require a set of RNA molecules capable of synthesizing aminoacyl-RNAs, which are produced by the protein aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in extant biology.