An amino functional group that is within a pendant group of coupling agents is widely used for GF/nylon composites because the amine end groups of polyamide molecules form a hydrogen bond with the amino group.
From the matrix point of view, nylon-6,6/PP-gMAH copolymers can be formed via the amine end group-MAH reaction and result in the coexistence of PP molecules and nylon-6,6 molecules.
The experimental results are used to build a semi-empirical dynamic mathematical model that predicts the effects of catalyst concentration, temperature, moisture level and time on the concentrations of unreacted carboxyl and amine end
This facilitated the reaction between the acid-functional terpolymer and the amine end
groups of the nylon.
The aim of most chemical recycling procedures is obtaining monomers such as terephthalic acid (TPA), ethylene glycol (EG), bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate (BHET), and PET oligomers with carboxyl, hydroxyl and amine end
These changes can be attributed to an increase in the amine end
group of product by increasing of amount of DEA.
The rheological properties of the ternary blends suggested that excessively high reactivity between amine end
groups of PA6 and MAH grafted onto EVA makes the compatibility between PET and PA6 worse, although EVA-g-MAH was expected to work as a compatibilizer for PBT/PA6 blends.
For example, while in the case of blend 1 (80/20, w/w) the original MA/amine molar ratio is 0.13 and PA chains are predominantly coupled to EPM-g-MA chains via the PA amine end
groups, for blend 4 (10/90, w/w) the MA/amine ratio is 4.5 but the MA conversion is still more or less complete.
For example, the carboxyl moieties can interact though chemical reaction in the melt with the amine end
groups of the PA-6,6 to yield PP-g-PA graft copolymers (37).
The amine end
groups of N6 are expected to react with the acid groups of PP-g-AA to form a graft copolymer in-situ and thus enhance the compatibility of the otherwise incompatible N6 and PP pair.
It is not a simple case of favouring amine ends
over acid, or vice versa, however; both have problems.
In order to compare the toughening effect of a linear engineering thermoplastic with an hyperbranched polymer, the difunctional resin (DGEBA) was also modified by the addition of a novel amine ended
linear copolymer 40:60 (poly[ethersulphone]:poly[etherethersulphone]) PES: PEES.