The two main phases of the life cycle of leishmania are; the promastigotes and amastigote
. Leishmaniasis is endemic in developing as well as in developed countries and is found in all other continents except Australia and Antarctica.
Amphotericin B is the most potent leishmanicidal drug available commercially, acting against promastigote and amastigote
forms of the parasite.
Peripheral blood antibodies towards rK39 antigen were positive, and bone marrow examination confirmed visceral leishmaniasis with the presence of typical Leishman-Donovan bodies (amastigote
form) within the bone marrow histiocytes [Figure 2].
Serial passages were done to maintain the amastigote
The life cycle of Leishmania includes extracellular promastigote in sandflies and amastigote
stage that presents in mammals within mononuclear phagocyte cells (1, 2).
Dr Soomro said that in cutaneous leishmaniasis, the amastigote
multiply in dermal macrophages near sand-fly bite typically on the exposed body surface such as forearms, limbs, checks or ears.
Miltefosine a new compound, derived from alkyl-phospholipids, has demonstrated its antileishmanial and antineoplastic efficacy.4 Miltefosine is the first and still the only oral agent that is being used against all types of leishmaniasis since its registration in 2002.4 Drug was approved in India first and has been used for the past decade in 14 countries for the treatment of leishmaniasis.2 The chemical name of miltefosine is hexadecylphosphocholine and the empirical formula is C21H46NO4P, yielding a molecular weight of 407.57 g/mol.4 Miltefosine acts primarily on Leishmania by affecting the promastigote and amastigote
stages of the species.
(a) Density of amastigote
nests in cardiac tissue of infected WT and [IL-4.sup.-/-] mice.
These genes and proteins were tested for vaccine trials in experimental models of infection, including cruzipain [13, 14], trans-sialidase [15, 16], amastigote
surface protein-2 , LYT-1 , and paraflagellar rod protein  among others.
promastigote y amastigote
, siendo este ultimo la forma clinicamente relevante.
Miltefosine is an alkyllysophospholipid analogue drug with in vitro activity against the promastigote and amastigote
stages of Leishmania species.
Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis (IFLA/BR/67/PH8) was maintained as amastigote
forms by several weekly passages in BALB/c mice, and as promastigote forms at 26[degrees]C in supplemented Schneider's medium, pH 7.0 (10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100U/mL penicillin, and 100 [micro]g/mL streptomycin), as previously described .