Since in the highest density areas of avian retinas (Bravo & Pettigrew) the RGCs become smaller and distributed into multiple sublayers, as also reported previously (Coli et al.), the authors refer to the study of RGCs density by radial retinal sections to also identify the deeper RGCs and to distinguish them from the displaced amacrine
Stell, 'Cholinergic amacrine
cells are not required for the progression and atropine-mediated suppression of form-deprivation myopia', Brain Research, vol.
Since in the highest density areas of avian retinas (Bravo & Pettigrew), the RGCs become smaller and distributed into multiple sublayers, in this study the authors employed retinal radial sections to also identify the deeper RGCs and to distinguish the RGCs from the displaced amacrine
cells which could lead to an overestimation of their number.
Barber, "Loss of cholinergic and dopaminergic amacrine
cells in streptozotocin-diabetic rat and Ins2Akita-diabetic mouse retinas," Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, vol.
Different studies have shown neurotransmitter synthesis in amacrine
cells, and nicotinic receptors in bipolar cells, horizontal cells, photoreceptors, and the GCL [108, 109].
Lots of studies [8-10] have demonstrated that retina, especially the fovea, where dopaminergic amacrine
cells have concentrated in, is the vulnerable site of vision function in PD.
They are derived from inner retinal neurons including ganglion cells and amacrine
. In our preliminary experiment, it was observed that there was no difference in the clarity of the cornea or lens between bilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) ligation mice and sham surgery mice.
Activation of polyaxonal wide-field amacrine
cells (ACs) by global jitter motion suppresses firing of specific GCs, such as the local motion detector (fast OFF GC in salamander, ON brisk transient GC, and ON-OFF direction selective GC in rabbit; (19) W3B GC in mouse (20)).
Retinal levels of BDNF are reduced in animal models of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and this reduction of BDNF is correlated with amacrine
It consists of (a) photoreceptors (rods and cones) that convert light stimuli into neurochemical signals, (b) three major classes of interneurons (horizontal, amacrine
, and bipolar cells) that perform initial information processing, (c) Muller glia that perform a multitude of support functions, and (d) projection neurons (retinal ganglion cells) that extend axons through the optic nerve and optic tract to convey the visual image information to higher processing centers within the brain [16-18].
Researchers at the Scripps Research Institute in California, US, focused on amacrine
and horizontal cells in mice two types of neuron involved in the visual signalling pathway.