Dinoflagellates are members of the Alveolates
, protists that belong to the Bikonta (also including, e.g., plants, algae, diatoms, and slime molds), which split from the Unikonta (e.g., animals and fungi) at the root of the eukaryotic evolutionary tree (Stechmann and Cavalier-Smith, 2003).
Kenmochi, "The evolution of spliceosomal introns in alveolates
," Molecular Biology and Evolution, vol.
43) small, less than 2 mm, black in color, glossy, somewhat alveolate
. Stratigraphy: Hemic peat.
weathering processes which operate on clays in semi-arid regions, such as the so-called "tafoni" of Corsica and Sardinia, can also be related to this type of crystal growth, as can the differentiated thermal expansion of salts held in the rock.
Early host-pathogen interactions in marine bivalves: evidence that the alveolate
parasite Perkinsus marinus infects through the oyster mantle during rejection of pseudofeces.
Cryptocaryon irritans is an alveolate
parasite of teleost marine fish.
flowering plants is the tectate- columellate or alveolate
exine, the site for proteins involved in the cell recognition system.
Capitula homogamous or heterogamous; discoid, radiate, ligulate, or disciform; receptacle epaleate, less frequently paleate, glabrous to pubescent, alveolate
, ciliate, setose to fimbriate; involucre uniseriate to multiseriate.