They showed substantial evidence of multiple physiological actions through which vitamin D stimulates maturation of the fetal lung, including ATII cell maturation and alveolarization
. Their results supported the hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is a frequent, modifiable risk factor for respiratory distress syndrome .
Angiogenesis plays vital roles in the regenerative alveolarization
of adult lungs [254-256].
Emerging evidence suggests that full maturation of the alveolus occurs during the alveolarization
stage (PND 0-14) (Herriges and Morrisey 2014).
phase takes place from postnatal day (PND) 4 to approximately PND21, with the development of the first mature alveoli and microvascular system around PND14 [21, 22].
Ruiz-Camp et al., "Systemic hydrogen sulfide administration partially restores normal alveolarization
in an experimental animal model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia," American Journal of Physiology--Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol.
Franco-Montoya et al., "Impaired alveolarization
and intra-uterine growth restriction in rats: a postnatal genome-wide analysis," Journal of Pathology, vol.
In most mammals with short gestation periods, such as rodents and lagomorphs, the birth occurs before the formation and maturaration of the alveoli in the lungs, so, in these species the alveolarization
can be considered late and/or an postnatal event (PINKERTON & JOAD, 2000).
Inhibition of angiogenesis decreases alveolarization
in the developing rat lung.
Ogata et al., "IUGR differentially alters MeCP2 expression and H3K9Me3 of the PPAR[gamma] gene in male and female rat lungs during alveolarization
," Birth Defects Research A, vol.
Ang et al., "Foxa2 regulates alveolarization
and goblet cell hyperplasia," Development, vol.
In humans, lung alveolarization
continues through age of 7 years, whereas, in the mouse, lung development starts prenatally and continues for several weeks after birth .
Several studies have linked M2 macrophage activation state to tissue repair and regeneration [33, 38, 39] and a recent study identifies M2 macrophages localizing to sites of branching morphogenesis and increasing in number during the alveolarization
stage, suggesting an important role during postnatal lung development .