Although geographic size clines have been mostly studied in relation to latitudes, similar patterns are expected altitudinally, because climatic gradients are similar in both cases (Chown & Klok 2003, Angilleta et al.
Because vegetation varies altitudinally, we also discuss the possibility that food type influenced altitudinal size clines.
For over a century a debate has persisted over the hypothesis that summits of coastal highlands exhibiting altitudinally
separable zones of weathering were not ice covered in the last or penultimate glaciation.
corrected rainfall estimates are used here.
- Stevens (1992) suggested that Rapoport's rule might apply altitudinally
as well as latitudinally, because higher altitudes are similar to higher latitudes in that both experience variable climates.
Gradually, as soil moisture increased they were able to advance altitudinally
and reached their thermal thresholds fairly late, whereafter they may have fluctuated in accord with cooling and warming of the climate.
In the Orthoptera, body size changes latitudinally and altitudinally
(Bidau & Marti 2007a,b; Kaouch & Kristin in press), and these morphological differences often derive from underlying genetic differences.
Vegetation in Garibaldi Park is altitudinally
americanum, the apparently large ecological gradients presented to the species (latitudinally and altitudinally
) might be expected to result in patterns of local adaptation that are reflected in population differentiation at some elements of the genome, especially if the host plant is patchily distributed and the herbivore exhibits host-plant phenological dependence.