The virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus; many alphaviruses
are important human pathogens (3, 4).
* Viral polyarthritis is caused by rubella, parvovirus B19 (4), alphaviruses
, and hepatitis B.
Evolutionary relationships and systematics of the alphaviruses
. J Virol.
having single-stranded RNA genome belong to Togaviridae family of viruses and are divided into arthritogenic viruses (old world) and encephalitogenic viruses (new world) including equine encephalitis viruses.
Human infection with these New World alphaviruses
typically results in an acute, incapacitating disease characterized by fever, headache, nausea, myalgia, and malaise .
(2) Similar to other alphaviruses
, MAYV RNA has a stop codon at the end of nsP3 gene, and at a low frequency (5-20%), a read-through translation can occur, resulting in nsP1-4 product (Fig.
This could be due to cross-reactivity with other alphaviruses
. However, there is currently no evidence of other alphaviruses
circulating in Nicaragua.
are another group of positive-sense RNA viruses transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito and are a member of the Togaviridae family.
In a sensitivity test involving all chikungunya serotypes and various alphaviruses
, flaviviruses, and one phlebovirus, the RT-RPA assay identified all virus genotypes, with the only cross-reaction occurring with O'nyong'nyong virus.
They address genome structure and replication, laboratory diagnosis and detection, interaction with the interferon system, antiviral responses in mosquitoes, animal models of alphavirus-induced inflammatory disease, clinical manifestations of arthritogenic alphaviruses
, encephalitic alphaviruses
, the application of alphaviruses
for gene therapy, and chikungunya virus pathogenesis and the development of control strategies.