Since terrestrial plants contain only the short-chain omega-3 precursor alpha-linolenic acid
, and since alpha-linolenic acid
is poorly converted into its long-chain metabolites EPA and DHA, it is likely that the American diet will continue to be relatively deficient in these important molecules unless significant dietary changes are made.
TABLE: ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS Essential Fatty Acids AE Alpha-Linolenic Acid
Linoleic Acid (18:3n-3) (18:2n-6) Number of Carbons 18 18 Number of Double Bonds 3 2 Omega Designation Omega-3 Omega-6 Category Long Chain Long Chain Polyunsaturated Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Fatty Acid Significant Related EPA (20:5n-3) GLA (18:3n-6) Fatty Acids Eicosapentanoic Acid Gamma Linolenic Acid DHA (22:6n-3) CLA (18:2n-6) Docosahexanoic Acid Conjugated Linoleic Acid Dietary Sources Flaxseed Meat Rapeseed Peanuts Walnuts Corn Microalgae Soy Fatty Cold Water Farmed salmon Fish Relative Prevalence Low High in U.S.
The relative risk of metastatic prostate cancer was 1.89 for high intake of alpha linolenic acid from either animal (meat or dairy) or vegetable sources, 1.77 for alphalinolenic acid from animal sources, and 1.72 for alpha-linolenic acid
from vegetable sources.
After adjustment for other potentially confounding variables, the relative risk of metastatic prostate cancer was 1.89 for high intake of alpha-linolenic acid
from either animal (meat or dairy) or vegetable sources, 1.77 for alpha-linolenic acid
from animal sources, and 1.72 for alpha-linolenic acid
from vegetable sources.
The oil is characteristically rich in polyunsaturated acids, especially in linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids
, with up to 2% content of the important gamma-linolenic acid.
The diet, which is high in alpha-linolenic acid
, is a significant departure from the step 1 and step 2 diet recommended by the American Heart Association.
, or ALA, is found in vegetable oils, nuts (especially walnuts), flax and some leafy vegetables.
The three omega-3s are: docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and alpha-linolenic acid
Rich in antioxidants and an excellent source of Alpha-Linolenic Acid
(ALA) - the plant-based form of omega-3 - California walnuts are the go-to-nut for every health concern.
(There's a third omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid
(ALA), found in walnuts, canola oil, flaxseeds, chia seeds and pumpkin seeds.
Plasma concentrations of five PUFAs [linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), alpha-linolenic acid
(ALA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)], two saturated fatty acids (palmitic acid and stearic acid) and two monounsaturated fatty acids (palmitoleic acid and oleic acid) were measured in esterified (E) and unesterified (UE) forms.
They are also high in healthy polyunsaturated fats such as omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid