alpha radiation

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al·pha ra·di·a·tion

an emission of a nucleus of high kinetic energy from the nucleus of an atom undergoing radioactive decay or fission.


The combined processes of emission, transmission and absorption of highly energetic waves and particles on the electromagnetic spectrum treatment to kill cancer cells. See Acute radiation injury, Alpha radiation, Background radiation, Chemoradiation, Coherent radiation, Corpuscular radiation, Definitive radiation, Electromagnetic radiation, External radiation, Gamma radiation, Grenz radiation, Implant radiation, Internal radiation, Ionizing radiation, Non-ionizing radiation, Remnant radiation, Scattered radiation, Synchrotron radiation, Total body irradiation Clinical practice The direct, band-like extension of a sensation, in particular of pain, from a point of origin to another region of the body. Cf Referred pain Oncology The administration of ionizing radiation to kill malignant tumor cells. See Radiation fibrosis, Radiation therapy.
Alpha radiation 2 protons and 2 neutrons, eg plutonium, radon; α radiation travels 15 cm in air and is stopped by a piece of paper; proven role in soft tissue malignancy–see Radium Dial company, relationship with epithelial malignancy is uncertain; it is present in cigarette smoke and may have an additive effect to the known carcinogenic effect of tar; emitted by radium, thorium, uranium.
Beta radiation Electrons, eg strontium-90, tritium–3H; β radiation travels at the speed of light, is stopped by wood and thin metals and is carcinogenic to skin
Gamma radiation Gamma photon A quantum of electromagnetic radiation of ≤ 1 nm, which is generated by unstable nuclei eg 60Co; γ radiation is stopped by several feet of heavy concrete or 10-40 cm of lead and is linked to cancer, inducing mutations at the glycophorin A locus in survivors of atomic blasts; 183/105 excess deaths in survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki blasts, with a 13-fold ↑ in non-lymphocytic leukemia–peaking at 6 yrs post-blast, thyroid nodules and tumors–peaking at 15-20 years post-blast and multiple myeloma 6-fold ↑–peaking 30 yrs post-blast
References in periodicals archive ?
The cross sections for all of these processes have been measured as a function of energy and from these cross sections the probability of producing Lyman alpha radiation as neutral or charged particles move a distance [DELTA]r can be calculated.
Calculating an alpha radiation dose from injected Thorotrast was more complicated than for the uranium metal implants because of the complex thorium decay series of isotopes.
Polonium-210, a decay product of bismuth-210, has a half-life of 138 days and gives off intense alpha radiation as it decays into regular lead and becomes stable.
These radionuclides emit densely ionizing alpha radiation that usually reaches and damages only the tissues in its immediate vicinity--within micrometers of the particle (1).
Because a person's exposure to alpha particles typically is low, researchers have had to estimate public health threats from radon by extrapolating from the effects of higher doses of alpha radiation.
If both the cytoplasm and the nucleus are sensitive to the particles' energy, current models may underestimate the effects of low doses of alpha radiation, he says.
Scheinberg has turned to bismuth-213, which emits only alpha radiation, to treat leukemia (SN: 2/22/97, p.
Such facilities must also monitor for radium-226, radium-228, uranium and gross alpha radiation in their effluent.
announced today that it intends to perform a First-in-Human study for its revolutionary treatment of cancer tumors with alpha radiation at Israel's eminent Rabin Medical Institute.
The researchers discovered that 18 percent of the bone marrow cells that received the highest dose of alpha radiation survived and went on to divide, even though the team's calculations indicated that most of those cells had been penetrated by an alpha particle.
Alpha radiation, which is the predominate form of radiation emitted by Polonium 210, is absorbed by the skin and can cause burns.
Martz and his co-workers designed a portable spectrometer to record week-long, round-the-clock emissions of alpha radiation in eight Colorado buildings.