alpha radiation

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al·pha ra·di·a·tion

an emission of a nucleus of high kinetic energy from the nucleus of an atom undergoing radioactive decay or fission.


The combined processes of emission, transmission and absorption of highly energetic waves and particles on the electromagnetic spectrum treatment to kill cancer cells. See Acute radiation injury, Alpha radiation, Background radiation, Chemoradiation, Coherent radiation, Corpuscular radiation, Definitive radiation, Electromagnetic radiation, External radiation, Gamma radiation, Grenz radiation, Implant radiation, Internal radiation, Ionizing radiation, Non-ionizing radiation, Remnant radiation, Scattered radiation, Synchrotron radiation, Total body irradiation Clinical practice The direct, band-like extension of a sensation, in particular of pain, from a point of origin to another region of the body. Cf Referred pain Oncology The administration of ionizing radiation to kill malignant tumor cells. See Radiation fibrosis, Radiation therapy.
Alpha radiation 2 protons and 2 neutrons, eg plutonium, radon; α radiation travels 15 cm in air and is stopped by a piece of paper; proven role in soft tissue malignancy–see Radium Dial company, relationship with epithelial malignancy is uncertain; it is present in cigarette smoke and may have an additive effect to the known carcinogenic effect of tar; emitted by radium, thorium, uranium.
Beta radiation Electrons, eg strontium-90, tritium–3H; β radiation travels at the speed of light, is stopped by wood and thin metals and is carcinogenic to skin
Gamma radiation Gamma photon A quantum of electromagnetic radiation of ≤ 1 nm, which is generated by unstable nuclei eg 60Co; γ radiation is stopped by several feet of heavy concrete or 10-40 cm of lead and is linked to cancer, inducing mutations at the glycophorin A locus in survivors of atomic blasts; 183/105 excess deaths in survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki blasts, with a 13-fold ↑ in non-lymphocytic leukemia–peaking at 6 yrs post-blast, thyroid nodules and tumors–peaking at 15-20 years post-blast and multiple myeloma 6-fold ↑–peaking 30 yrs post-blast
References in periodicals archive ?
The cross sections for all of these processes have been measured as a function of energy and from these cross sections the probability of producing Lyman alpha radiation as neutral or charged particles move a distance [DELTA]r can be calculated.
Polonium-210 alpha radiation as a cancer initiator in tobacco smoke.
As radon decays, it emits alpha radiation, solid particles that can lodge in your lungs.
The companys novel antibody-based platform of TTCs is expected to deliver alpha radiation selectively to tumor cells while sparing surrounding normal tissues.
Once burned, the material causes alpha radiation, which in large amounts is believed to be carcinogenic.
Spokesman Colin Punler said yesterday: "As soon as they recorded alpha radiation, they immediately stopped work.
Roger Cox, director of the HPA's centre for radiation, chemicals and environmental hazards, revealed that a large quantity of alpha radiation emitted from polonium 210 had been detected in Mr Litvinenko's urine.
Although the alpha radiation dose rate varies significantly within the 50-1am thickness of tissue, it was nonetheless useful to calculate this tissue-averaged dose for comparison with that produced by Thorotrast.
Radon-222 is not an immediate threat because it stops emitting alpha radiation and decays into lead-214 in 3.
In addition, measurements of gross beta and gross alpha radiation in samples were available for some individuals.
Bayers scientists in Oslo explain how radioactivity could be used to fight cancer: they are developing a new drug product that is designed to selectively find its way through the body to tumors and then release alpha radiation locally.
356) does show nonlinearity of cell damage from alpha radiation in the dose range studied, but the lowest dose studied (5 percent of all cell nuclei hit) is probably several orders of magnitude above the mean lethal dose for any organism.