alpha radiation

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al·pha ra·di·a·tion

an emission of a nucleus of high kinetic energy from the nucleus of an atom undergoing radioactive decay or fission.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


The combined processes of emission, transmission and absorption of highly energetic waves and particles on the electromagnetic spectrum treatment to kill cancer cells. See Acute radiation injury, Alpha radiation, Background radiation, Chemoradiation, Coherent radiation, Corpuscular radiation, Definitive radiation, Electromagnetic radiation, External radiation, Gamma radiation, Grenz radiation, Implant radiation, Internal radiation, Ionizing radiation, Non-ionizing radiation, Remnant radiation, Scattered radiation, Synchrotron radiation, Total body irradiation Clinical practice The direct, band-like extension of a sensation, in particular of pain, from a point of origin to another region of the body. Cf Referred pain Oncology The administration of ionizing radiation to kill malignant tumor cells. See Radiation fibrosis, Radiation therapy.
Alpha radiation 2 protons and 2 neutrons, eg plutonium, radon; α radiation travels 15 cm in air and is stopped by a piece of paper; proven role in soft tissue malignancy–see Radium Dial company, relationship with epithelial malignancy is uncertain; it is present in cigarette smoke and may have an additive effect to the known carcinogenic effect of tar; emitted by radium, thorium, uranium.
Beta radiation Electrons, eg strontium-90, tritium–3H; β radiation travels at the speed of light, is stopped by wood and thin metals and is carcinogenic to skin
Gamma radiation Gamma photon A quantum of electromagnetic radiation of ≤ 1 nm, which is generated by unstable nuclei eg 60Co; γ radiation is stopped by several feet of heavy concrete or 10-40 cm of lead and is linked to cancer, inducing mutations at the glycophorin A locus in survivors of atomic blasts; 183/105 excess deaths in survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki blasts, with a 13-fold ↑ in non-lymphocytic leukemia–peaking at 6 yrs post-blast, thyroid nodules and tumors–peaking at 15-20 years post-blast and multiple myeloma 6-fold ↑–peaking 30 yrs post-blast
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Alpha Tau is the only company to use alpha radiation to zap tumors.
The cross sections for all of these processes have been measured as a function of energy and from these cross sections the probability of producing Lyman alpha radiation as neutral or charged particles move a distance [DELTA]r can be calculated.
A large quantity of alpha radiation from polonium 210 was detected in Alexander Litvinenko's urine, just a few hours prior to his death on Thursday.
DU loses half its radioactivity in 4.5 billion years and emits mainly alpha radiation.
Not only that, the radiation they do emit (alpha radiation) does not penetrate the skin (unlike beta or gamma radiation).
Burning contaminated vegetation releases radioactive smoke that can be inhaled, exposing lung and body tissue to damaging alpha radiation. Tissue samples taken from a herd of cattle that grazed on contaminated fields near the Rocky Flats plant for only three months were found to contain higher amounts of radioactivity than herds that grazed year-round at the Nevada Test Site.
It emits alpha radiation, generally considered to be the least harmful type since it is unable even to penetrate light clothing.
Therefore, alpha radiation's effects at even high doses would be confined to the skin of an organism.
"The kind of radiation given off by U-235 is alpha radiation," says Gordon Edwards of the Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility and a consultant on radiation health issues.
Respiratory tract tumors in hamsters induced by benzo(a)pyrene and [sup.210]Po alpha radiation. Cancer Res.
The chemicals include benzene and 2-naphthylamine, known human carcinogens, cadmium and n-nitrosodiethanolamine, which is associated with cancer in humans, and polonium-210, an element that emits alpha radiation. Residues of agricultural chemicals and pesticides are found in some tobaccos but are not heavily monitored in the U.S.
Gofman says, "This is their opening salvo in a huge campaign of `A little radiation is good for you, and besides, most of the plutonium goes through your gut.' Never mind the fact that as it goes through the large intestine it gives the colon cells a dose of alpha radiation. The Japanese are the biggest promoters today of nuclear breeders and reprocessing.