Becker et Alogia
is associated with --Each participant al.
Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS): Developed by Anderasen (27), this test consists of 5 domains: flattening of effect, alogia
, avulsion, anhedonia, and attention deficit, with 25 symptoms arranged under the different domains.
In the second story line, there is a middle-aged courtier, Parabolano, who fancies himself in love and is tricked by his servant Rosso and a ruffian named Alogia
into believing that he will have a tryst with his beloved Madonna Laura, impersonated by Togna, the baker's wife.
Diagnosed based on two (or more) of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a one-month period (or less if successfully treated): bizarre delusions; hallucinations; disorganized speech (frequent derailment or incoherence); grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior; negative symptoms, i.e., affective flattening, alogia
, or avolition; social or occupational dysfunction; continuous signs of disturbance for at least six months, which can include prodromal and residual periods; and not due to substance use or medical condition.
Negative symptoms include alogia
, flattened affect, anhedonia and avolition.
Even though they are able to identify differences of up to six standard deviations when comparing negative symptoms of patients and controls (Emmerson et al., 2009), they are relatively insensitive to changes in the patient's condition and they induce response biases that make it difficult for even trained evaluators to notice specific aspects of behavior related to alogia
and blunted affect within the patient's speech (Alpert, Shaw, Pouget, & Lim, 2002).
Positive symptoms include delusions, hallucinations and paranoia, while negative symptoms include affect flatting (lack of emotion), alogia
(lack of speech), anhedonia (lack of pleasure) and avolition (lack of motivation).
Consequently, there is little success in simulating the speech abnormalities found in disorganized schizophrenic thought: derailment, loose associations, tangentiality, neologisms, circumstantiality, alogia
, and incoherence (APA, 2013; Maxmen & Ward, 1995; Resnick & Knoll, 2008).