However, populations of these species also occur on other volcanoes, suggesting a potential role for allopatry
in the initial divergence of taxa.
Furthermore, the results clearly indicate that in this species, spine color variation represents an intraspecific polymorphism, since genetic identities (GI) were significantly high for morphotypes living in sympatry and low for morphotypes living in allopatry
. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) is clear cut concerning this conclusion which is well represented by the dendrogram, which showed morphotypes clustered by sampling locations instead of color of spines.
Our NSD calculations revealed longer migration distances than obtained by simply comparing mid-summer to mid-winter locations (range allopatry
By extension, mimics should not experience reduced predation in areas of allopatry
where harmful models are absent.
Miller (1964: 256) believed that "Two species may exist in close proximity and their ranges may even interdigitate, but they maintain a relationship of contiguous allopatry
and do not form mixed-species populations." Today, "contiguous allopatry
," in which otherwise sympatric species are separated ecologically, is known as parapatry (e.g.
The species is more sexually dimorphic in the region of allopatry
. On all islands to which it has been introduced, in 100-200 generations the small Indian mongoose has increased in male size and in sexual dimorphism; changes in female size have been slight and inconsistent.
There was also good evidence for a polygenic basis to the observed genetic variation, and they suggest that this supports a hypothesis of divergence for song characters while in allopatry
during the Pleistocene glaciations that probably separated the subspecies.
The Evolutionary Species Concept does apply in such cases of allopatry
, however, although with considerable subjectivity in determining whether or not an allopatric population in sufficiently differentiated to be regarded as having established a unique evolutionary trajectory.
Comments of competitively-induced disjunct allopatry
. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, 65:1-8.
Comparison of gamete compatibility between two blue mussel species in sympatry and in allopatry
This southern hemisphere lineage of the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis has been diverging in allopatry
from northern hemisphere conspecifics for about 0.84-1.2 million years (Westfall & Gardner, 2013).