Anne Boleyn's pregnancies were a textbook example of Kell alloimmunization
with a healthy first child and subsequent late-term miscarriages.
The increased need for platelets may indicate he is becoming refractory from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alloimmunization
* Finally, there is the concept of alloimmunization
, with the possibility that fetal antigens shared by tumor cells stimulate an immune response in the mother.
In one study, it was found that an apparent 43% of the cases of underlying alloantibodies actually involved mimicking autoantibodies, which reduced the real alloimmunization
rate of this patient population to 23%.
Therefore the attempts to have universal/stealth group of blood, which can be transfused to any patient without any immunological problem (alloimmunization
However, it is associated with some adverse effects such as iron overload, increased alloimmunization
, and possible increased exposure to pathogens.
may lead to immunological reactions in case of future stimulation by a similar antigen.
Autotransfusion reduces complications associated with homologous transfusions, such as disease transmission (AIDS, hepatitis), transfusion reactions, and alloimmunization
. The integral regulator provides expanded safety to the patients and efficient performance.
The decision is based on the evidence that leukocyte reduction reduces non-hemolytic febrile reactions, prevents alloimmunization
, reduces transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV), and may reduce transfusion-related suppression of the immune system.
A prospective study of the incidence of red cell alloimmunization
Leukocyte reduction also has been used to reduce alloimmunization
and transfusion-transmitted infections (2).