Association of cytokine/costimulatory molecule polymorphism and allograft rejection
: a comparative review.
Which T cells mediate allograft rejection
. Transplantation 1985; 40: 229-233, doi: 10.1097/00007890198509000-00001.
In summary, our study showed a role of imbalance in Th1/Th2 as well as LAP+Tregs/Th17 in corneal allograft rejection
. The next clear step is to modulate the balance between LAP+Tregs and Th17 cells and raise the frequency of circulating CD4+LAP+Tregs to prolong the survival of the allografts in corneal transplantation.
Therefore, tissue diagnosis is necessary to support a diagnosis of allograft rejection
. Transbronchial biopsy to obtain lung tissue is currently the gold standard to assess patients for lung allograft rejection
and to distinguish rejection from its clinical mimics such as aspiration, infection, drug toxicity, and recurrent disease.
Huang, "Systemic application of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 immunomodulator inhibits corneal allograft rejection
in mice," Acta Ophthalmologica, vol.
These pathways include renal cell carcinoma, endometrial cancer, bladder cancer, acute myeloid leukemia, non-small-cell lung cancer, asthma, autoimmune thyroid disease, allograft rejection
, graft-versus-host disease, primary immunodeficiency, nicotine addiction, type I diabetes mellitus, bacterial invasion of epithelial cells, pathogenic Escherichia coli infection, and malaria.
Treatment of allograft rejection
with steroids if warranted during pregnancy is not contraindicated.
Combined analysis of allograft inflammatory factor-1, interleukin-18 and Toll-like receptor expression and association with allograft rejection
and coronary vasculopathy.
These complications are not observed in the enteric drainage technique of pancreas transplantation; (15) however, the main disadvantage of enteric drainage technique is lack of a noninvasive access for detection of pancreas allograft rejection
. In order to address this issue, our team, who had previously developed portal enteric technique of pancreas transplantation in 19923 and revised it by placing a temporary venting jejunostomy in 2000, (5) for the first time introduced the portal-endocrine and gastric-exocrine technique of pancreas transplantation in 2007.
In transplantation models, the Th1 cytokine profile often associates with allograft rejection
, while the Th2 profile favors the acquisition of tolerance and stable graft survival .
Fitchman, "Hyperacute allograft rejection
mediated by antivascular endothelial cell antibodies with A negative monocyte crossmatch" Transplantation, vol.
 reported a 42% acute renal allograft rejection
rate but only 2/5 cases were proven by biopsy.