In vitro-expanded alloantigen-specific Tregs are promising reagents for promoting clinical transplantation tolerance .It is hoped that immunologic tolerance to certain nonself antigens, such as alloantigens
in organ transplants, can be established as stably as natural tolerance to self-constituents.
A point mutation [Thr.sub.799]Met on the [[alpha].sub.2] integrin leads to the formation of new human platelet alloantigen
[Sit.sup.a] and affects collagen-induced aggregation.
These mobilized APCs undergo a maturation process during which they acquire MHC class II and costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86; a phenotypic change that makes them more potent in presenting the alloantigen
to T cells [8, 9].
Taylor, "Predicting HLA class II alloantigen
immunogenicity from the number and physiochemical properties of amino acid polymorphisms," Transplantation, vol.
In early phase of IRI, inflammation is alloantigen
independent and is characterized by activation of not just only classical cells belonging to what we call the immune system, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes, but also resident renal cells, such as endothelial cells and tubular epithelial cells, which are extremely sensitive to oxidative stress.
In an alloantigen
tolerance induction model, it was shown that PD-1/PD-L1 plays an important role in maintaining long-term allogeneic tolerance induced by infusion of ethylene carbodiimide-fixed allogeneic splenocytes .
In the current study we have investigated the possibility of CD89 and CD206 targeting on monocytes and moDCs to enhance processing of HLA class I alloantigen
and antigen presentation to CD4 T-cells, as a tool to facilitate the detection and monitoring of indirect T-cell alloreactivity.
Of all the HLA class I molecules expressed by EVT, only HLA-C displays the variability required to constitute a fetal alloantigen
, and it is recognized by maternal uNK cells through their KIR receptors .
Exosomes and Phagosomes as Tools for Alloantigen
Rather, the investigators found that depletion of a subset of CD86+ microglia with M1-like characteristics could present alloantigen
and secrete stimulatory cytokines that promoted the expansion of the [CD8.sup.+] T cells and was likely the etiology for enhanced glioma growth .
Acting as antigen-presenting cells, DCs trigger innate and adaptive immune responses to microbial antigens and alloantigens
, as well as to self-antigens in autoimmune diseases.
NK cells in CB appear to be similar to those in APB, and these cells may actually have greater proliferative capacity when exposed to alloantigens
or exogenous cytokines (8), (18), (21).