Currently the only proven alternative is sulphuric acid (see Existing Alkylation Process and Waste Management Section) and the trade-offs are such that there is no general preference for one process over the other (Chapin et al., 1985; Dunham, 2005).
Catalyst production is treated as part of the Background because both HF and sulphuric acid are bulk commodities so that any change in use for this alkylation plant would represent no more than a marginal change in demand.
The case explored in this paper, cleaner production approaches to reduce fluorine use and waste in the alkylation process at a specific UK oil refinery, illustrates the need to broaden the issues and trade-offs considered in assessing processing and waste management options.
F., "Alkylation of Isobutane With C3-C5 Olefins to Produce High Quality Gasolines: Physiochemical Sequence of Events," Ind.
Karasev, "Acid Soluble Oil, by Product Formed in Isobutane Alkylation with Alkene in the Presence of Trifluoro Methane Sulfonic Acid.
Dunham, D., "Upgrade Alkylation for Refining Environment," Hydrocarb.
DuPont STRATCO Refinery Solutions, "HF Alkylation Course," (2006).
Heald, "Consider Online Monitoring of HF Acid When Optimizing Alkylation Operations," Hydrocarb.
L, "Fixed-Bed Alkylation Using SLP-Type Catalyst in a Chromatographic-Type Reactor Concept," Ind.
Tailleur, "Simulation of a Spouted Bed Reactor for Solid Catalyst Alkylation," Fuel 86, 1313-1324 (2007).
W Shoemaker, "Consider Improved Liquid Alkylation Catalysts," Hydrocarb.