alkaliphile


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alkaliphile

An extremophile that grows optimally at high pH (9 to 11, alkaline/basic) conditions, which is accomplished by maintaining a lower intracellular pH of ±8, constantly pumping H+ across the cell membrane into their cytoplasm.
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The viable count of alkaliphiles in normal soils is lower than that found in alkaline soils (18,19).
Different sampling sites have been chosen for isolation of alkaliphiles. Tiago and Pedersen revealed that all the cultivated strains isolated from alkaline ground water samples were alkalitolerants rather than alkaliphiles (35,36).
From pH tolerance study, about only 10% isolates were able to tolerate 12.0 pH, and 80% at pH 11.0 whereas 100% can grow at pH 6.0, which confirms that the studied bacterial isolates were alkalitolerants rather than alkaliphiles. About 80% isolates can grow at 10% NaCl concentration and 65% can tolerate 50[degrees]C.
Wagale and co-workers reported that majority of the isolates were Gram-positive, motile rods with few cocci and actinomycetes that were strict alkaliphiles and grew at pH 11.0 only (40).
(1.) Grant, W.D.: Cultivation of aerobic alkaliphiles. In: Methods in Microbiology (Rainey, FA, Oren, A ed).
Phylogenetic diversity of soda lake alkaliphiles. FEMS Microbiol.
Isolation and characterization of Novel alkaliphiles from bauxite processing waste and description of Bacillus vedderi sp.
Their topics include functional genomics in thermophilic micro-organisms, whether Lake Vostok and the subglacial lakes of Antarctica host life, molecular adaptation to high salt, mechanisms to tolerate metal and acid toxicity, and environmental and taxonomic biodiversity of gram-positive alkaliphiles. Other chapters look at the search for life in the universe, extremophiles as biocatalysts for industrial biotechnology, and lessons for early evolution and border conditions of life.
A Mann-Whitney U test was applied to determine whether the groups were significantly different in terms of Ericales, Betula, Salix, and Saxifraga oppositifolia, the last two considered mild alkaliphiles. The results of the comparison, which tests the hypothesis that the two groups contain samples from the same population, indicate a highly significant difference (p < 0.01) in pollen percentages for Ericales, Betula and Salix between the two terrain types (Table 5).
Among bacteria, the Halophiles in comparison to the extensive uses of extremozymes from thermophiles and alkaliphiles, very few Halophilic enzymes have thus far found applications in industries and biotechnology [5, 7].
[7] Horikoshi and koki 1999, Alkaliphiles: "Some Applications of Products for Biotechnology" Japan Marine Science and Technology p.