Etymology: Ar, al + galiy, wood ash, + L, reservare, to save
the volume of carbon dioxide or carbonates at standard temperature and pressure in 100 mL of blood plasma. The principal buffer in blood is bicarbonate, which represents most of the alkali reserve. Hemoglobin phosphates and additional bases also act as buffers. If the alkali reserve is low, acidosis exists; if it is high, alkalosis exists.