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a general diagnostic term designating primary myocardial disease.
alcoholic cardiomyopathy a congestive cardiomyopathy resulting in cardiac enlargement and low cardiac output occurring in chronic alcoholics; the heart disease in beriberi (thiamine deficiency) is also associated with alcoholism.
congestive cardiomyopathy a syndrome characterized by cardiac enlargement, especially of the left ventricle, myocardial dysfunction, and congestive heart failure.
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy an increase in heart muscle weight, particularly of the left ventricle and often involving the interventricular septum; it may affect the flow of blood from an atrium into the ventricle or out from the ventricle. This type of cardiomyopathy is frequently associated with idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. Called also asymmetrical septal hypertrophy.
hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy a form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the location of the septal hypertrophy causes obstructive interference to left ventricular outflow. See also asymmetrical septal hypertrophy.
infiltrative cardiomyopathy myocardial disease resulting from deposition in the heart tissue of abnormal substances, as may occur in amyloidosis, hemochromatosis, and other disorders.
primary cardiomyopathy that in which the basic pathologic process involves the myocardium itself and not other cardiac structures; the condition is of unknown etiology and not part of a disease affecting other organs.
restrictive cardiomyopathy a form in which the ventricular walls are excessively rigid, impeding ventricular filling; it is marked by abnormal diastolic function but normal or nearly normal systolic function.
secondary cardiomyopathy any form that is due to another cardiovascular disorder or is a manifestation of a systemic disease such as sarcoidosis.
myocardial disease occurring in some patients with long-term alcoholism; may result from alcohol toxicity, or thiamin deficiency, or be of unknown pathogenesis.
Etymology: Ar, alkohl, essence; Gk, kardia, heart, mys, muscle, pathos, disease
a cardiac disease associated with alcohol abuse and characterized by an enlarged heart and low cardiac output. Treatment consists of abstinence from alcohol and results in marked reduction in heart size in over half of patients.
alcoholic cardiomyopathyA condition linked to chronic alcohol excess. It is a major cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, and is characterised by severe left ventricular dysfunction, which may present as ventricular fibrillation or sudden death.
Clinical findings Heart failure, anasarca and peripheral oedema, anorexia, shortness breath, dependent dyspnoea, oliguria, nocturia, palpitations, thready pulse.
Diagnosis Heart murmurs, EKG changes, enlarged heart by imaging.
Management Alcohol abstinence (if possible), reduced sodium, fluid restriction, ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, diuretics; pacemaker, heart transplant.
Mortality Up to 80% die within 3 years.
alcoholic cardiomyopathyA clinicopathologic state induced by chronic alcoholism, and a major cause of dilated cardiomyopathy, characterized by severe left ventricular dysfunction, associated with a 40-80% 3-yr mortality, and it may present as sudden death or ventricular fibrillation
al·co·hol·ic car·di·o·my·op·athy(ACM) (al-kō-holik kahrdē-ō-mī-opă-thē)
Heart disease occurring in some patients with long-term alcoholism.
al·co·hol·ic car·di·o·my·op·athy(al-kō-holik kahrdē-ō-mī-opă-thē)
Myocardial disease in some patients with long-term alcoholism; may result from alcohol toxicity, or thiamin deficiency, or unknown pathogenesis.